Abstract

We report a simple experiment to directly determine the critical power for self-focusing in air by measuring the focal shift of the focused femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses. The measured critical power is 10 GW for the 42 fs laser pulse; it gradually decreases to 5 GW for (chirped) pulse duration longer than 200 fs.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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2005 (3)

W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, F. Théberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, ”Background reservoir: its crucial role for long distance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 80, 857–860 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Extension of ultrabroadband continuum generated in air up to 230 nm using ultrashort and intense laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 221–225 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schroeder, J. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water,” Opt. Express 12, 4768–4774 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4768
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, ”Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 177–183 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, ”Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),“ Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2001 (5)

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, ”Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,“ Laser Physics 11, 68–76 (2001).

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, “Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 533–535 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (5)

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, and S. L. Chin, ”Focusing limits of intense ultrafast laser pulses in a high pressure gas: road to new spectroscopic source,“ Opt. Commun. 183, 479–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic Collapse of Ultrashort Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (6)

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, “The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126–L128 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.,  8, 121–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Moving-focus versus self-waveguiding model for longdistance propagation of femtosecond pulses in air,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 35, 1771–1776 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin and K. Miyazaki, “A comment on lightning control using a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2011–2012 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

1979 (1)

D. V. Vlasov, R. A. Garaev, V. V. Korobkin, and R. V. Serov, ”Measurement of nonlinear polarizability in air,“ J. Exp. Theor. Phys.,  49, 1033–1036 (1979).

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, ”Self-focusing: theory,“ Prog. Quantum Electron.,  4, 35–110 (1975).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

V. I. Talanov, “Focusing of light in cubic media,” JETP Lett. 11, 199 (1970).

1968 (1)

G. L. McAllister, J. H. Marburger, and L. G. DeShazer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1648–1649 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Fattah, M.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, ”Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,“ Laser Physics 11, 68–76 (2001).

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, and S. L. Chin, ”Focusing limits of intense ultrafast laser pulses in a high pressure gas: road to new spectroscopic source,“ Opt. Commun. 183, 479–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Akozbek, N.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aközbek, N.

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, ”Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 177–183 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[Crossref]

Andr, Y.-B.

Andre, Y.-B.

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ange, G.

Bandrauk, A. D.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, ”Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,“ Laser Physics 11, 68–76 (2001).

Becker, A.

W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, F. Théberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, ”Background reservoir: its crucial role for long distance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 80, 857–860 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, ”Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 177–183 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bondiou-Clergerie, A.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Borne, F.

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, “The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126–L128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boudreau, D.

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, ”Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 177–183 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Boston, 1992).

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.,  8, 121–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. S. F.

Chien, C. Y.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Extension of ultrabroadband continuum generated in air up to 230 nm using ultrashort and intense laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 221–225 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, F. Théberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, ”Background reservoir: its crucial role for long distance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 80, 857–860 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Schroeder, J. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “From random to controlled small-scale filamentation in water,” Opt. Express 12, 4768–4774 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-20-4768
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, ”Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),“ Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, ”Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 177–183 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, ”Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,“ Laser Physics 11, 68–76 (2001).

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, and S. L. Chin, ”Focusing limits of intense ultrafast laser pulses in a high pressure gas: road to new spectroscopic source,“ Opt. Commun. 183, 479–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin and K. Miyazaki, “A comment on lightning control using a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2011–2012 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, “The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126–L128 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.,  8, 121–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, “Ultrafast white-light continuum generation and self-focusing in transparent condensed media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 637–650 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Chin, ”From Multiphoton to Tunnel Ionization,“ in Advances in Multiphoton Processes and Spectroscopy, S. H. Lin, A. A. Villaeys, and Y. Fujimura, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004).

Chin, S.L.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Comtois, D.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Couture, P.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Curley, P. F.

DeShazer, L. G.

G. L. McAllister, J. H. Marburger, and L. G. DeShazer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1648–1649 (1968).
[Crossref]

Desparois, A.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Diels, J.-C.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Djeu, N.

Du, D.

Elizondo, J. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fay, A. T.

Ferland, B.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, B. L.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Franco, M.

Franco, M. A.

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuji, T.

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic Collapse of Ultrashort Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallimberti, I.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Garaev, R. A.

D. V. Vlasov, R. A. Garaev, V. V. Korobkin, and R. V. Serov, ”Measurement of nonlinear polarizability in air,“ J. Exp. Theor. Phys.,  49, 1033–1036 (1979).

Golubtsov, I. S.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, ”Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),“ Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gravel, J.-F.

W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, F. Théberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, ”Background reservoir: its crucial role for long distance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 80, 857–860 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

Hellwarth, R. W.

D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, and R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3003–3009 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henesian, M. A.

D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, and R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3003–3009 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ilkov, F. A.

Johnston, T. W.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kalkner, W.

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, ”Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),“ Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.,  8, 121–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

Kieffer, J. C.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Klingbeil, L.

Korn, G.

Korobkin, V. V.

D. V. Vlasov, R. A. Garaev, V. V. Korobkin, and R. V. Serov, ”Measurement of nonlinear polarizability in air,“ J. Exp. Theor. Phys.,  49, 1033–1036 (1979).

Kosareva, O. G.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, ”Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),“ Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.,  8, 121–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lalande, P.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lange, R.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135, 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, F. Théberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, ”Background reservoir: its crucial role for long distance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 80, 857–860 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Extension of ultrabroadband continuum generated in air up to 230 nm using ultrashort and intense laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 221–225 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, ”Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),“ Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Luo, Q.

F. Théberge, W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Extension of ultrabroadband continuum generated in air up to 230 nm using ultrashort and intense laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 221–225 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, ”Self-focusing: theory,“ Prog. Quantum Electron.,  4, 35–110 (1975).
[Crossref]

G. L. McAllister, J. H. Marburger, and L. G. DeShazer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1648–1649 (1968).
[Crossref]

Martin, F.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

McAllister, G. L.

G. L. McAllister, J. H. Marburger, and L. G. DeShazer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1648–1649 (1968).
[Crossref]

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercure, H. P.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, K.

S. L. Chin and K. Miyazaki, “A comment on lightning control using a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2011–2012 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, “The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126–L128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Moving-focus versus self-waveguiding model for longdistance propagation of femtosecond pulses in air,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 35, 1771–1776 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382–384 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Moving-focus versus self-waveguiding model for longdistance propagation of femtosecond pulses in air,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 35, 1771–1776 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382–384 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mondelain, D.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wste, T. Fuji, Y.-B. Andr, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and Guiding High Voltage Discharge by Ohmic Connection through Ionized Filaments Created by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
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J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
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E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, ”Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2 and O2 by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,“ J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650–660 (1997).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135, 310–314 (1997).
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E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 62–64 (1996).
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Nibbering, E.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135, 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Niedermeier, S.

Oral, E.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pennington, D. M.

D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, and R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3003–3009 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Petit, S.

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.,  8, 121–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, “The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126–L128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Potvin, C.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Prade, B.

Prade, B. S.

Rairoux, P.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rethmeier, K.

Ripoche, J.-F.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135, 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rizk, F. A. M.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wste, T. Fuji, Y.-B. Andr, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and Guiding High Voltage Discharge by Ohmic Connection through Ionized Filaments Created by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ronneberger, F.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Roy, G.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

Salin, F.

Salmon, E.

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wste, T. Fuji, Y.-B. Andr, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and Guiding High Voltage Discharge by Ohmic Connection through Ionized Filaments Created by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, “Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 533–535 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scalora, M.

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, ”Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 177–183 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schillinger, H.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, H.

Serov, R. V.

D. V. Vlasov, R. A. Garaev, V. V. Korobkin, and R. V. Serov, ”Measurement of nonlinear polarizability in air,“ J. Exp. Theor. Phys.,  49, 1033–1036 (1979).

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The principles of nonlinear optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Shimoji, Y.

Squier, J.

Stein, B.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Talanov, V. I.

V. I. Talanov, “Focusing of light in cubic media,” JETP Lett. 11, 199 (1970).

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, ”Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,“ Laser Physics 11, 68–76 (2001).

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, and S. L. Chin, ”Focusing limits of intense ultrafast laser pulses in a high pressure gas: road to new spectroscopic source,“ Opt. Commun. 183, 479–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tang, X. P.

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, F. Théberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, ”Background reservoir: its crucial role for long distance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 80, 857–860 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Extension of ultrabroadband continuum generated in air up to 230 nm using ultrashort and intense laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 221–225 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tzortzakis, S.

Vidal, F.

H. Pépin, D. Comtois, F. Vidal, C. Y. Chien, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J. C. Kieffer, B. L. Fontaine, F. Martin, F. A. M. Rizk, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, P. Lalande, and I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding high-voltage large-scale leader discharges with sub-joule ultrashort laser pulses,” Physics of Plasma 8, 2532–2539 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vijayalakshmi, K.

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vlasov, D. V.

D. V. Vlasov, R. A. Garaev, V. V. Korobkin, and R. V. Serov, ”Measurement of nonlinear polarizability in air,“ J. Exp. Theor. Phys.,  49, 1033–1036 (1979).

Volk, R.

Waite, D.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wedekind, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wste, T. Fuji, Y.-B. Andr, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and Guiding High Voltage Discharge by Ohmic Connection through Ionized Filaments Created by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J. P.

Wolf, J.-P.

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, “White-Light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Moving-focus versus self-waveguiding model for longdistance propagation of femtosecond pulses in air,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 35, 1771–1776 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382–384 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wste, L.

Yu, J.

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ziener, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J.-F. Gravel, Q. Luo, D. Boudreau, X. P. Tang, and S. L. Chin, “Sensing of Halocarbons Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Fluorescence,” Anal. Chem. 76, 4799–4805 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (9)

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, “Electrical conductivity of long plasma channels in air generated by self-guided femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 753–756 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, and S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, “The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 877–879 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Becker, N. Aközbek, K. Vijayalakshmi, E. Oral, C. M. Bowden, and S.L. Chin, “Intensity clamping and re-focusing of intense femtosecond laser pulses in nitrogen molecular gas,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 287–290 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, W. Liu, Q. Luo, and S. L. Chin, “Extension of ultrabroadband continuum generated in air up to 230 nm using ultrashort and intense laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 221–225 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, ”Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 177–183 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, F. Théberge, A. Becker, and S. L. Chin, ”Background reservoir: its crucial role for long distance propagation of femtosecond laser pulses in air,“ Appl. Phys. B 80, 857–860 (2005).
[Crossref]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, ”Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),“ Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. (2)

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Moving-focus versus self-waveguiding model for longdistance propagation of femtosecond pulses in air,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 35, 1771–1776 (1999).
[Crossref]

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. of Quant. Electron. 31, 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

D. V. Vlasov, R. A. Garaev, V. V. Korobkin, and R. V. Serov, ”Measurement of nonlinear polarizability in air,“ J. Exp. Theor. Phys.,  49, 1033–1036 (1979).

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.,  8, 121–146 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

JETP Lett. (1)

V. I. Talanov, “Focusing of light in cubic media,” JETP Lett. 11, 199 (1970).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, “The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126–L128 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chin and K. Miyazaki, “A comment on lightning control using a femtosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2011–2012 (1999).
[Crossref]

Laser Physics (1)

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, A. D. Bandrauk, and S. L. Chin, ”Spectroscopy of the gases interacting with intense femtosecond laser pulses,“ Laser Physics 11, 68–76 (2001).

Opt. Commun. (6)

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, ”Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),“ Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Talebpour, M. Abdel-Fattah, and S. L. Chin, ”Focusing limits of intense ultrafast laser pulses in a high pressure gas: road to new spectroscopic source,“ Opt. Commun. 183, 479–484 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, W. Liu, J.-F. Gravel, and S. L. Chin, “Third harmonic beam profile generated in atmospheric air using femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 245, 399–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. Franco, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Determination of the time dependence of n2 in air,” Opt. Commun. 135, 310–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. Liu, S. Petit, A. Becker, N. Aközbek, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “Intensity clamping of a femtosecond laser pulse in condensed matter,” Opt. Commun. 202, 189–197 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Aközbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, and S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wste, T. Fuji, Y.-B. Andr, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and Guiding High Voltage Discharge by Ohmic Connection through Ionized Filaments Created by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, and L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1397–1399 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Mlejnek, E. M. Wright, and J. V. Moloney, “Dynamic spatial replenishment of femtosecond pulses propagating in air,” Opt. Lett. 23, 382–384 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, and R. Sauerbrey, “Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 533–535 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “self-channeling of high-peak-power femtosecond laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 20, 73–75 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 62–64 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, and R. W. Hellwarth, Phys. Rev. A 39, 3003–3009 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. L. McAllister, J. H. Marburger, and L. G. DeShazer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1648–1649 (1968).
[Crossref]

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic Collapse of Ultrashort Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. The inset is a typical picture recorded by the ICCD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

On axis nitrogen fluorescence distribution for three different energy levels: (a) 0.29 mJ; (b) 0.71 mJ; (c) 2.22 mJ. The black lines: experimental results; the red lines: Gaussian fitting.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fluorescence signal peak position as function of the pulse energy. Solid squares: experimental results; red lines: straight lines used to determine the critical power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The critical power changes in terms of the pulse duration. Black solid squares: positively chirped pulse; red solid circle: negatively chirped pulse.

Equations (4)

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P cr = 3.77 λ 2 8 π n 2 n 0
f = f z sf f + z sf .
z sf = 0.367 ka 2 { [ ( P P cr ) 1 2 0.852 ] 2 0.0219 } 1 2
P cr = 0.42 mJ 42 fs = 10 GW .

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