Abstract

An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with a novel S-shaped design for broadband operation is demonstrated for the first time with III–V semiconductors. This device design provided a polarization and temperature insensitive operation. It is also shown that, despite the wide operating range, chromatic dispersion does not degrade the performance of the AWG. The AWG is operational above the absorption edge of the semiconductor (1100nm) and can function for a wide range of wavelengths covering the coarse wavelength multiplexing range from 1270nm to 1610nm. A four channel AWG with this novel design was fabricated and characterized.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Michael J. Riezenman, IEEE Spectrum 39, 21 and 24, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, �??CWDM multi/demultiplexer consisting of stacked dielectric interference filters and off-axis diffractive lenses,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 551, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. N. McMullin, R.G. DeCorby, and C. J. Haugen, �??Theory and simulation of a concave diffraction grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM systems,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 758, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Viens, C.L. Callender, J.P. Noad, and L. Eldada, �??Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1010, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Adar, Charles H. Henry, C. Dragone, R. C. Kistler, and Michele A. Milbrodt, �??Broadband array multiplexers made with silica waveguides on silicon,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 212, (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Yuzo Yoshikuni, �??Semiconductor arrayed waveguides gratings for photonic integrated devices,�?? IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1102, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Roland Mestric, Monique Renaud, Maurus Bachmann, B. Martin, and Fabienne Gaborit, �??Design and fabrication of 1.31-1.55µm phased-array duplexer on InP,�?? IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 251, (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. den Besten, M. P. Dessens, C. G. P. Herben, X. J. M. Leijtens, F. H. Groen, M R. Leys, and M. K. Smith, �??Low-loss, compact, and polarization independent phasar demultiplexer fabricated by using a double-etch process,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 62, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Sadao Adachi, Physical Properties of III-V Semiconductor Compounds (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Larry A. Coldren and Scott W. Corzine, Diode lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1995)

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron.

Yuzo Yoshikuni, �??Semiconductor arrayed waveguides gratings for photonic integrated devices,�?? IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1102, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roland Mestric, Monique Renaud, Maurus Bachmann, B. Martin, and Fabienne Gaborit, �??Design and fabrication of 1.31-1.55µm phased-array duplexer on InP,�?? IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 251, (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. H. den Besten, M. P. Dessens, C. G. P. Herben, X. J. M. Leijtens, F. H. Groen, M R. Leys, and M. K. Smith, �??Low-loss, compact, and polarization independent phasar demultiplexer fabricated by using a double-etch process,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 62, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Viens, C.L. Callender, J.P. Noad, and L. Eldada, �??Compact wide-band polymer wavelength-division multiplexers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1010, (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Sasaki, Y. Okabe, �??CWDM multi/demultiplexer consisting of stacked dielectric interference filters and off-axis diffractive lenses,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 551, (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectrum

Michael J. Riezenman, IEEE Spectrum 39, 21 and 24, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. N. McMullin, R.G. DeCorby, and C. J. Haugen, �??Theory and simulation of a concave diffraction grating demultiplexer for coarse WDM systems,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 758, (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Adar, Charles H. Henry, C. Dragone, R. C. Kistler, and Michele A. Milbrodt, �??Broadband array multiplexers made with silica waveguides on silicon,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 212, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

Sadao Adachi, Physical Properties of III-V Semiconductor Compounds (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1992).
[CrossRef]

Larry A. Coldren and Scott W. Corzine, Diode lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1995)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A standard horseshoe design and an S-shape design AWG. Standard horseshoe design is not suitable for broadband operation, instead an S-shape AWG was designed to achieve broadband operation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Composition and dimernsions of ridge waveguides for the arrayed waveguide grating. Color contours indicate the simulated profile for the fundamental guided mode.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated bend loss for the fundamental and second order mode of the ridge waveguide pictured in Fig. 2. Based on these results, AWG was designed so that no segments had a radius of curvature less than 1000 microns.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The layout of a four channel, S-shaped arrayed waveguide grating for broadband operation suitable for coarse wavelength division multiplexing. Optical path difference is generated in central arc of the waveguide array.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SEM pictures of the star coupler with some of the array waveguides and an individual waveguide in the arrayed waveguide grating, fabricated on InP.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical setup used for characterization of the broadband arrayed waveguide grating.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spectral response for the arrayed waveguide grating with portions of three different grating orders displayed. Within a grating order, each peak is the output from a single waveguide as the laser is tuned.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Polarization and Temperature Insensitivity: Birefringence between TE and TM mode shifts the AWG spectrum by only 1nm. Increasing the AWG temperature from 25 °C to 85 °C shifted the spectrum by 3.5 nm. Only one peak is shown for clarity.

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