Abstract

Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography has been used to image blood flow dynamics in various tissues using both time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography techniques. In this manuscript, we present phase-resolved Doppler imaging with a high-speed optical frequency domain imaging system. We demonstrate that by correcting for spurious timing-induced phase errors, excellent flow sensitivity can be achieved, limited only by the imaging signal-to-noise ratio. Conventional and Doppler images showing flow in an Intralipid phantom and in human skin are presented. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability of phase-resolved OFDI to measure high flow rates without the deleterious effects of fringe washout.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  4. J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar and A. J. Welch, "Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images," Dermatology 198 355-361 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
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  6. M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, B. Cense and J. F. de Boer, "Simultaneous intensity, birefringence, and flow measurements with high-speed fiber-based optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27 1534-1536 (2002)
  7. Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25 114 (2000)
  8. B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11 (2003) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490 </a>
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28 1981-1983 (2003)
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    [CrossRef]

Dermatology (1)

J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar and A. J. Welch, "Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images," Dermatology 198 355-361 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton and N. S. Nishioka, "High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography," Gastrointest. Endosc. 51 467-474 (2000)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Tech. L. (1)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney and B. E. Bouma, "Wide tuning range avelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photonics Tech. L. 17 678-680 (2005)

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz and G. J. Tearney, "Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39 604-609 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3 21-31 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117 43-48 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11 (2003) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490 </a>

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson and I. A. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts," Opt. Express 11 (2003) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416</a>

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11 889-894 (2003) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889</a>

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12 2977-2998 (2004) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977</a>
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domainimaging," Opt. Express 11 2953-2963 (2003) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953</a>

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11 3116-3121 (2003) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3116">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3116</a>

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park and J. F. de Boer, "High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm wavelength," Opt. Express 11 3598-3604 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11 2183-2189 (2003) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183</a>

S. Yazdanfar, C. H. Yang, M. V. Sarunic and J. A. Izatt, "Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound," Opt. Express 13 410-416 (2005) <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-410">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-410</a>
[CrossRef]

M. V. Sarunic, M. A. Choma, C. H. Yang and J. A. Izatt, "Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3x3 fiber couplers," Opt. Express 13 957-967 (2005) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-957">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-957</a>
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto and K. Hsu, "Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles," Opt. Express 13 3513-3528 (2005) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513</a>
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13 3931-3944 (2005) <a href ="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931</a>
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett (1)

M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, B. Cense and J. F. de Boer, "Simultaneous intensity, birefringence, and flow measurements with high-speed fiber-based optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27 1534-1536 (2002)

Opt. Lett. (11)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney and B. E. Bouma, "115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser," Submitted to Optics Letters (2005)

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski and A. Kowalczyk, "Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28 1745-1747 (2003)

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter," Opt. Lett. 28 1981-1983 (2003)

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28 2067-2069 (2003)

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer and J. S. Nelson, "Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 25 114 (2000)

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave and J. S. Nelson, "Optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 22 64-66 (1997)

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. vanGemert and J. S. Nelson, "Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Lett. 22 1119-1121 (1997)

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton and A. J. Welch, "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomograghy," Opt. Lett. 22 1439-1441 (1997)

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, "Imaging and velocimetry of the human retinal circulation with color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25 1448 (2000)

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29 480-482 (2004)
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson and Z. P. Chen, "Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator," Opt. Lett. 30 147-149 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254 1178 (1991)

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