Abstract

Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography has been used to image blood flow dynamics in various tissues using both time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography techniques. In this manuscript, we present phase-resolved Doppler imaging with a high-speed optical frequency domain imaging system. We demonstrate that by correcting for spurious timing-induced phase errors, excellent flow sensitivity can be achieved, limited only by the imaging signal-to-noise ratio. Conventional and Doppler images showing flow in an Intralipid phantom and in human skin are presented. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability of phase-resolved OFDI to measure high flow rates without the deleterious effects of fringe washout.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 122977–2998 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Submitted to Optics Letters (2005)
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    [Crossref]
  27. B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51467–474 (2000)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 133931–3944 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. S. Yazdanfar, C. H. Yang, M. V. Sarunic, and J. A. Izatt, “Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound,” Opt. Express 13410–416 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-410
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 281981–1983 (2003)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Tech. L. 17678–680 (2005)
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30147–149 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, C. H. Yang, M. V. Sarunic, and J. A. Izatt, “Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound,” Opt. Express 13410–416 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-410
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, M. A. Choma, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3×3 fiber couplers,” Opt. Express 13957–967 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-957
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 133513–3528 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 133931–3944 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (8)

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11889–894 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 281745–1747 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 281981–1983 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 282067–2069 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 112953–2963 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 113116–3121 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 113598–3604 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 112183–2189 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Simultaneous intensity, birefringence, and flow measurements with high-speed fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 271534–1536 (2002)
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A. J. Welch, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images,” Dermatology 198355–361 (1999)
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 321–31 (1998)
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 11743–48 (1995)
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aretz, H. T.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barton, J. K.

J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A. J. Welch, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images,” Dermatology 198355–361 (1999)
[Crossref]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomograghy,” Opt. Lett. 221439–1441 (1997)
[Crossref]

Bing, Q.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Bisland, S.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 133931–3944 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Tech. L. 17678–680 (2005)
[Crossref]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 122977–2998 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29480–482 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 112953–2963 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 282067–2069 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 113598–3604 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 281981–1983 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51467–474 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Submitted to Optics Letters (2005)

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29480–482 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

Choi, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Compton, C. C.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51467–474 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dave, D.

de Boer, J. F.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 133931–3944 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 122977–2998 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29480–482 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 112953–2963 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 282067–2069 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 113598–3604 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Simultaneous intensity, birefringence, and flow measurements with high-speed fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 271534–1536 (2002)
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25114 (2000)
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 11743–48 (1995)
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Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
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Fujimoto, J. G.

Gardiner, G.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
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Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 321–31 (1998)
[Crossref]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11889–894 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 11743–48 (1995)
[Crossref]

Houser, S. L.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Izatt, J. A.

Jang, I. K.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 11743–48 (1995)
[Crossref]

Kang, D. H.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Kulkami, M. D.

Kulkarni, M. D.

J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A. J. Welch, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images,” Dermatology 198355–361 (1999)
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 321–31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Lo, S.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Marcon, N. E.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29480–482 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Nishioka, N. S.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51467–474 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Tech. L. 17678–680 (2005)
[Crossref]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Submitted to Optics Letters (2005)

Park, B. H.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 133931–3944 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29480–482 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 282067–2069 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 113598–3604 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Simultaneous intensity, birefringence, and flow measurements with high-speed fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 271534–1536 (2002)
[Crossref]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. W.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pekar, J.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Pomerantsev, E.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Sarunic, M. V.

Saxer, C.

Schlendorf, K.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seng-Yue, E.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Seung, K. B.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shou-jiang, T.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Targowski, P.

Tearney, G. J.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Tech. L. 17678–680 (2005)
[Crossref]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 133931–3944 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 122977–2998 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29480–482 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 282067–2069 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 113598–3604 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 112953–2963 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 281981–1983 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51467–474 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Submitted to Optics Letters (2005)

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

vanGemert, M. J. C.

Vitkin, I. A.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Wang, X. J.

Welch, A. J.

J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A. J. Welch, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images,” Dermatology 198355–361 (1999)
[Crossref]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomograghy,” Opt. Lett. 221439–1441 (1997)
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B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Xiang, S.

Yang, C. H.

Yang, V. X. D.

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S. H.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Tech. L. 17678–680 (2005)
[Crossref]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 133931–3944 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 122977–2998 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29480–482 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 112953–2963 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 113598–3604 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 281981–1983 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Submitted to Optics Letters (2005)

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y.

Dermatology (1)

J. K. Barton, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, and A. J. Welch, “Three-dimensional reconstruction of blood vessels from in vivo color Doppler optical coherence tomography images,” Dermatology 198355–361 (1999)
[Crossref]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, C. C. Compton, and N. S. Nishioka, “High-resolution imaging of the human esophagus and stomach in vivo using optical coherence tomography,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 51467–474 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics Tech. L. (1)

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with two semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Tech. L. 17678–680 (2005)
[Crossref]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1)

I. K. Jang, B. E. Bouma, D. H. Kang, S. J. Park, S. W. Park, K. B. Seung, K. B. Choi, M. Shishkov, K. Schlendorf, E. Pomerantsev, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, and G. J. Tearney, “Visualization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in patients using optical coherence tomography: Comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 39604–609 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, “Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 321–31 (1998)
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, “Measurement Of Intraocular Distances By Backscattering Spectral Interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 11743–48 (1995)
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 112183–2189 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11889–894 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 113598–3604 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-26-3598
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging,” Opt. Express 112953–2963 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2953
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 133931–3944 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-11-3931
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yazdanfar, C. H. Yang, M. V. Sarunic, and J. A. Izatt, “Frequency estimation precision in Doppler optical coherence tomography using the Cramer-Rao lower bound,” Opt. Express 13410–416 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-2-410
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, M. A. Choma, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, “Instantaneous complex conjugate resolved spectral domain and swept-source OCT using 3×3 fiber couplers,” Opt. Express 13957–967 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-957
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 133513–3528 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-9-3513
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, “Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 113116–3121 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3116
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 122977–2998 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (11)

J. Zhang, J. S. Nelson, and Z. P. Chen, “Removal of a mirror image and enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography using an electro-optic phase modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30147–149 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 281981–1983 (2003)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, S. H. Yun, T. C. Chen, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo human retinal imaging by ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 29480–482 (2004)
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M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 281745–1747 (2003)
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J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 282067–2069 (2003)
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Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. vanGemert, and J. S. Nelson, “Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Lett. 221119–1121 (1997)
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M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Simultaneous intensity, birefringence, and flow measurements with high-speed fiber-based optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 271534–1536 (2002)
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, C. Saxer, S. Xiang, J. F. de Boer, and J. S. Nelson, “Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity,” Opt. Lett. 25114 (2000)
[Crossref]

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, “Optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 2264–66 (1997)
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J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, “In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomograghy,” Opt. Lett. 221439–1441 (1997)
[Crossref]

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, “Imaging and velocimetry of the human retinal circulation with color Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 251448 (2000)
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 2541178 (1991)
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Other (3)

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, T. Shou-jiang, N. E. Marcon, G. Gardiner, Q. Bing, S. Bisland, E. Seng-Yue, S. Lo, J. Pekar, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, “High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part III): in vivo endoscopic imaging of blood flow in the rat and human gastrointestinal tracts,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-19-2416
[PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express11 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-25-3490
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Submitted to Optics Letters (2005)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic configuration of the OFDI system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The implementation of a calibration mirror used to generate a calibration signal which allows measurement of the timing-induced phase variations for each A-line pair. (b) A representative A-line showing the signal from the sample (tissue) and the calibration signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A typical measured phase (a), phase difference (b), and corrected phase difference (c) for a sample signal at depth Z=0.54.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The measured (circle) and predicted (solid curve) phase noise as a function of the sample signal SNR (Xs) at depths (a) Zs=0.07 and (b) Zs=0.84. The individual contribution to the overall noise resulting from only the sample signal noise (dash-dot curve) and calibration signal noise (dashed curve) are also shown. In both cases, the calibration signal was located at a depth Zc=0.96 with Xc ~31 dB.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Images of Intralipid flow through an 800 µm tube immersed in stationary Intralipid. (a) Structural image. (b) Flow image. The transverse distance is 3 mm and the imaging depth is 2.6 mm in air. Each image comprises 2000 A-lines.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

M-mode image showing depth-resolved Intralipid flow as a function of time for high-rate, pulsatile flow. The beam was positioned at the center of the tube (see arrow in Fig. 5). In (a), the measured phase difference is shown without unwrapping phase discontinuities. In (b), a phase unwrapping algorithm is used to reconstruct the flow. Note the difference in scale between the images. In (c) the flow profile at time T (indicated on the time axis) is plotted. The maximum flow in (c) induced a phase difference of -8.5π corresponding to a flow rate of 191 mm/s.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Images of human finger near the nailbed. Fig. 7(a) shows the structural image and 7(b) shows the flow image. Two blood vessels (circled) are clearly visible in the flow image. The transverse dimension is 3 mm and the depth is 2.6 mm. Each image contains 2000 A-lines.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ Δ ϕ 2 = ( 1 X ) .
S ( t ) R cos ( 2 k o z + 2 α z [ t + ε ] )
Δ ϕ = 2 α z Δ ε 2 α z T cl π Z .
Δ ϕ ̂ i , j = Δ ϕ i , j ( i m ) Δ ϕ m , j .
σ Δ ϕ ̂ 2 = ( 1 X s ) + ( Z s Z c ) 2 ( 1 X c )

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