Abstract

The formation of two grating types in SMF-28 fiber by focusing 125 fs, 0.5–2 mJ pulses through a phase mask onto a fiber sample is studied. The first type, specified as type I-IR, occurs below the damage threshold of the medium. The scaling behavior of the type I-IR gratings with field intensity and annealing properties suggests that their formation is related to nonlinear absorption processes, possibly resulting in color center formation. The second type, denoted as type II-IR, occurs coincidentally with white light generation within the fiber. These type II-IR gratings are stable at temperatures in excess of 1000 °C and are most likely a consequence of damage to the medium following ionization.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyy, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kanansky, and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 646-649 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, "Bragg Gratings Written in All-SiO2 and Ge-Doped Core Fibers With 800-nm Femtosecond Radiation and a Phase Mask," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94-100 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, "Fiber Bragg gratings made with a phase mask and 800-nm femtosecond radiation," Opt. Lett. 28, 995-997 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Stephen A. Slattery, David N. Nikogosyan, Gilberto Brambilla, "Fiber Bragg grating inscription by high-intensity femtosecond UV laser light: comparison with other existing methods of fabrication,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 22, pp. 354-361 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, and E. M. Dianov, "Inscription of fiber Bragg gratings by ultraviolet femtosecond radiation," Opt. Lett. 28, 2171-2173 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, Yu. V. Larionov, A. A. Rybaltovsky, and E. M. Dianov, S. V. Chekalin, Yu. A. Matveets, and V. O. Kompanets, �??Fabrication of fiber Bragg gratings with 267 nm femtosecond radiation�?? Opt. Express 12, 5996-6001 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, "Fiber Bragg Gratings With Suppressed Cladding Modes Made in SMF-28 With a Femtosecond IR Laser and a Phase Mask," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, "Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Hydrogen loading for fiber grating writing with a femtosecond laser and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 2127-2129 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, H. Ding, and X. Dai, "Multiple-beam interference patterns in optical fiber generated with ultrafast pulses and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1458-1460 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. S. J. Russell, "High Reflectivity and Narrow Bandwidth Fibre Gratings Written by Single Excimer Pulse," Electron. Lett. 29, 28-29 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, (Academic Press, New York, 1999)
  16. D. K. W. Lam, Brian K. Garside., �??Characterization of single-mode optical fiber filters,�?? Appl. Opt. 20, 440-445 (1981)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, �??Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,�?? Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Junji Nishii, Naoyuki Kitamura, Hiroshi Yamanaka, Hideo Hosono, Hiroshi Kawazoe, �??Ultraviolet-raditationinduced chemical reactions through one- and two- photon absorption processes in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,�?? Opt. Lett., 20, 1184-1186 (1995)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Malo, J. Albert, K.O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and S. Theriault., �??Enhanced photosensitivity in lightly doped standard telecommunications fiber exposed to high fluence ArF excimer laser light,�?? Electron.Lett. 31, 879-880 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. L. Archambault, L. Reekie, and P. S. J. Russell, "High Reflectivity and Narrow Bandwidth Fibre Gratings Written by Single Excimer Pulse," Electron. Lett. 29, 28-29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron.Lett. (1)

B. Malo, J. Albert, K.O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D.C. Johnson, and S. Theriault., �??Enhanced photosensitivity in lightly doped standard telecommunications fiber exposed to high fluence ArF excimer laser light,�?? Electron.Lett. 31, 879-880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, R. B. Walker, and P. Lu, "Fiber Bragg Gratings With Suppressed Cladding Modes Made in SMF-28 With a Femtosecond IR Laser and a Phase Mask," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1864-1866 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (9)

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dragomir, D. N. Nikogosyan, K. A. Zagorulko, P. G. Kryukov, and E. M. Dianov, "Inscription of fiber Bragg gratings by ultraviolet femtosecond radiation," Opt. Lett. 28, 2171-2173 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyy, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kanansky, and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 646-649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, "Fiber Bragg gratings made with a phase mask and 800-nm femtosecond radiation," Opt. Lett. 28, 995-997 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, "Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Hydrogen loading for fiber grating writing with a femtosecond laser and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 2127-2129 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, H. Ding, and X. Dai, "Multiple-beam interference patterns in optical fiber generated with ultrafast pulses and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1458-1460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, �??Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,�?? Opt. Lett. 14, 823-825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junji Nishii, Naoyuki Kitamura, Hiroshi Yamanaka, Hideo Hosono, Hiroshi Kawazoe, �??Ultraviolet-raditationinduced chemical reactions through one- and two- photon absorption processes in GeO2-SiO2 glasses,�?? Opt. Lett., 20, 1184-1186 (1995)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, (Academic Press, New York, 1999)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Walk off of the ±1 orders reduces the peak field intensity. After 5 mm (red) the peak intensity is reduced by a factor of 0.86 compared to the peak at the phase mask (black). Also shown is the profile after 10 mm (blue).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectra of gratings that were used in the annealing study. a) is the Type I-IR grating written with 125 fs pulses and 2-beam interference, b), c) Type II-IR grating written near the phase mask with 125 fs and 1.6 ps pulses repectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical microscope images of the Type I and Type II-IR gratings that were used in the annealing study: a) is the Type I-IR 125 fs grating, b) is the Type II-IR 125 fs grating and c) is the Type II-IR 1.6 ps grating.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

a) Short term annealing study of Type I-IR (black square), Type II fs (white square) and ps (black circle) IR and Type I UV (white circle) gratings. Grating temperatures were raised in 100 °C increments and stabilized for one hour. Index modulations are normalized to their room temperature values.b) Long term annealing at 1000 °C of Type II fs IR (white square) and Type II ps IR (black circle) gratings.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Typical transmission and reflection spectra near 1550 nm for a Type I-IR grating written with a 1200 µJ input pulse and a 3.21 µm phase mask is shown in (a). The cladding mode is significantly reduced as compared with Type I-UV gratings. (b) depicts the transmission loss and peak wavelength shift as a function of time. The wavelength shift is smaller than would be expected for a Type I UV grating. The noise in. (b) is the result of the laser scanning across the core.

Fig 6.
Fig 6.

Growth rate curves for various pulse energies are shown in (a). (b) shows the scaling behavior of the index modulation growh rate as a function of energy. The slope of 5 indicates a highly nonlinear process is involved in the grating growth.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

A comparison of the intensity profile for ±1 orders 1.5 mm away from a 3.21 µm mask in red with the profile of I5 in blue. The differences in these profiles offer a possible explanation for the unique spectral properties of Type I-IR gratings. (b) illustrates the reduced area under each peak of the nonlinear grating (red) compared to the linear grating (blue).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I th = pulse energy × 2 × % energy ± 1 orders × 0.86 area × pulse duration = 500 μ J × 2 × 0.776 × 0.86 3 × 10 4 cm 2 × 125 fs = 1.8 ± 0.4 × 10 13 W cm 2
P peak = Energy × 0.776 4100 × τ = 500 μ J × 0.776 4100 × 125 × 10 15 s = 0.76 ± 0.14 MW

Metrics