Abstract

We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study of terahertz (THz) generation and beam propagation in an optoelectronic THz system consisting of a large-area (ZnTe) electro-optic emitter and a standard electro-optic detector, and provide a comparison to typical biased GaAs emitters. As predicted by theory, in the absence of saturation the generated THz pulse energy is inversely proportional to the area of the optical pump beam incident on the emitter, although the detected on-axis electric field amplitude of the subsequently focused THz beam is practically independent of this area. This latter result promotes the use of larger emitter crystals in amplifier-laser-based THz systems in order to minimize saturation effects. Moreover, the generation of an initially larger THz beam also provides improved spatial resolution at intermediate foci between emitter and detector.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials 1, 26–33 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 435–440 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1114–1116 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Löffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semiconductor Science and technology, (in press).
  6. T. Hattori, R. Rungsawang, K. Ohta, and K. Tukamoto, “Gaussian beam analysis of temporal waveform of focused terahertz pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5198–5204 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. You, R. R. Jones, P. H. Bucksbaum, and D. R. Dykaar, “Generation of high-power sub-single-cycle 500-fs electromagnetic pulses,” Opt. Lett. 18, 290–292 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Power scaling of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 25–27 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Gürtler, C. Winnewisser, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz pulse propagation in the near field and in the far field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 74–83 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Löffler, T. Bauer, K. J. Siebert, H. G. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, and S. Czasch, “Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue,” Optics Express 9, 616–621 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 823–831 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. C. M. Planken, H.-K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakker, and T. Wenckebach, “Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 313–317 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by THz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996–3998 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, “Generation of terahertz radiation using electro-optic crystal mosaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10–12 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (John Wiley, New York, 1998).
  16. N. Hasegawa, “A fundamental work on THz measurement techniques for application to steel manufacturing processes.” (Dissertation, University of Frankfurt, 2004), http://deposit.ddb.de/cgi-bin/dokserv?idn=975373056.
  17. F.G. Sun, W. Ji, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption induced saturation of THz radiation in ZeTe,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technichal Digest (Optical Society of America, Wasgington DC, 2000), 479–480.

2004 (1)

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 435–440 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by THz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Hattori, R. Rungsawang, K. Ohta, and K. Tukamoto, “Gaussian beam analysis of temporal waveform of focused terahertz pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5198–5204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, “Generation of terahertz radiation using electro-optic crystal mosaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Power scaling of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 25–27 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Power scaling of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 25–27 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

Bauer, T.

T. Löffler, T. Bauer, K. J. Siebert, H. G. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, and S. Czasch, “Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue,” Optics Express 9, 616–621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Carrig, T. J.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, “Generation of terahertz radiation using electro-optic crystal mosaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Clement, T. S.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, “Generation of terahertz radiation using electro-optic crystal mosaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Czasch, S.

T. Löffler, T. Bauer, K. J. Siebert, H. G. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, and S. Czasch, “Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue,” Optics Express 9, 616–621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Power scaling of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 25–27 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Döhler, G.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dykaar, D. R.

Elsaesser, T.

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 435–440 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A.

T. Löffler, T. Bauer, K. J. Siebert, H. G. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, and S. Czasch, “Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue,” Optics Express 9, 616–621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gürtler, A.

Hahn, T.

T. Löffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semiconductor Science and technology, (in press).

Hasegawa, N.

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by THz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semiconductor Science and technology, (in press).

N. Hasegawa, “A fundamental work on THz measurement techniques for application to steel manufacturing processes.” (Dissertation, University of Frankfurt, 2004), http://deposit.ddb.de/cgi-bin/dokserv?idn=975373056.

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori, R. Rungsawang, K. Ohta, and K. Tukamoto, “Gaussian beam analysis of temporal waveform of focused terahertz pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5198–5204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

Jacob, F.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

Ji, W.

F.G. Sun, W. Ji, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption induced saturation of THz radiation in ZeTe,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technichal Digest (Optical Society of America, Wasgington DC, 2000), 479–480.

Jiang, Z.

Jones, R. R.

Kiesel, P.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kress, M.

T. Löffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semiconductor Science and technology, (in press).

Löffler, T.

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by THz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. Bauer, K. J. Siebert, H. G. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, and S. Czasch, “Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue,” Optics Express 9, 616–621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Löffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semiconductor Science and technology, (in press).

Luo, C.

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 435–440 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nienhuys, H.-K.

Ohta, K.

T. Hattori, R. Rungsawang, K. Ohta, and K. Tukamoto, “Gaussian beam analysis of temporal waveform of focused terahertz pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5198–5204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Reimann, K.

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 435–440 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, G.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, “Generation of terahertz radiation using electro-optic crystal mosaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H.

T. Löffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semiconductor Science and technology, (in press).

Roskos, H. G.

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by THz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. Bauer, K. J. Siebert, H. G. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, and S. Czasch, “Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue,” Optics Express 9, 616–621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rungsawang, R.

T. Hattori, R. Rungsawang, K. Ohta, and K. Tukamoto, “Gaussian beam analysis of temporal waveform of focused terahertz pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5198–5204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Segschneider, G.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Siebert, K. J.

T. Löffler, T. Bauer, K. J. Siebert, H. G. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, and S. Czasch, “Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue,” Optics Express 9, 616–621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, K. R.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, “Generation of terahertz radiation using electro-optic crystal mosaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F.G.

F.G. Sun, W. Ji, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption induced saturation of THz radiation in ZeTe,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technichal Digest (Optical Society of America, Wasgington DC, 2000), 479–480.

Tani, M.

Tautz, S.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, “Generation of terahertz radiation using electro-optic crystal mosaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by THz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semiconductor Science and technology, (in press).

Tukamoto, K.

T. Hattori, R. Rungsawang, K. Ohta, and K. Tukamoto, “Gaussian beam analysis of temporal waveform of focused terahertz pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5198–5204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wenckebach, T.

Winnewisser, C.

Woerner, M.

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 435–440 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (John Wiley, New York, 1998).

You, D.

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Chen, M. Tani, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Electro-optic transceivers for terahertz-wave applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 823–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, “Single-shot spatiotemporal terahertz field imaging,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1114–1116 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Power scaling of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 25–27 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F.G. Sun, W. Ji, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption induced saturation of THz radiation in ZeTe,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technichal Digest (Optical Society of America, Wasgington DC, 2000), 479–480.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

C. Luo, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of semiconductor nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. A 78, 435–440 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. T. Darrow, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, “Power scaling of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 25–27 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Hasegawa, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, “Remote identification of protrusions and dents on surfaces by THz reflectometry with spatial beam filtering and out-of-focus detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3996–3998 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. S. Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, “Generation of terahertz radiation using electro-optic crystal mosaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 10–12 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Hattori, R. Rungsawang, K. Ohta, and K. Tukamoto, “Gaussian beam analysis of temporal waveform of focused terahertz pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 5198–5204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature Materials (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nature Materials 1, 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optics Express (1)

T. Löffler, T. Bauer, K. J. Siebert, H. G. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, and S. Czasch, “Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue,” Optics Express 9, 616–621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 125205-1 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. Löffler, M. Kress, M. Thomson, T. Hahn, N. Hasegawa, and H. Roskos, “Comparative performance of terahertz emitters in amplifier-laser-based systems,” Semiconductor Science and technology, (in press).

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (John Wiley, New York, 1998).

N. Hasegawa, “A fundamental work on THz measurement techniques for application to steel manufacturing processes.” (Dissertation, University of Frankfurt, 2004), http://deposit.ddb.de/cgi-bin/dokserv?idn=975373056.

F.G. Sun, W. Ji, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption induced saturation of THz radiation in ZeTe,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technichal Digest (Optical Society of America, Wasgington DC, 2000), 479–480.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of experimental setup with two possible terahertz emitters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time-domain THz pulse signals emitted from (a) a large-area ZnTe crystal and (b) a large-area GaAs antenna with 1-kV/cm external DC bias, and (c) corresponding power spectra. Both emitters were illuminated with 360-µJ, 150-fs optical pump pulses.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Electro-optically measured peak amplitude of THz pulses generated using ZnTe and GaAs emitters vs optical pump pulse energy, with two optical pump beam diameters corresponding to ropt=4 mm (“small beam”) and 12 mm (“large beam”). Inset shows magnified views of low pulse-energy region. (b) Corresponding data with both optical pump pulse energy and THz peak amplitudes normalized to respective pump beam 1/e2-area Aopt (Common x-axis range only).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Measured THz pulse energies for both ZnTe and GaAs emitters and each optical pump beam size ropt=4 mm (“small beam”) and 12 mm (“large beam”), using bolometric detection. (b) Graph of the corresponding THz energy conversion efficiency (within the detection bandwidth) vs the effective fluence (optical pump pulse energy normalized to the respective pump beam 1/e2-area, Aopt). Inset: Magnified view for low pump fluence (note the different vertical scaling).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured THz beam intensity profiles measured (a) directly after the ZnTe emitter and (b) at a subsequent focal plane, for three characteristic frequency components (0.62, 1.25 and 2.19 THz), for the two optical pump beam sizes, ropt=4 mm (“small beam”) and 12 mm (“large beam”), as indicated. Red solid line 1/e2-beam region. Yellow dashed line: Expected 1/e2-beam region according to Eq. (4).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E THz ( t ) = K eff W opt T ( t ) .
W opt ( r ) = 2 J opt A opt exp ( 2 r 2 r opt 2 ) ,
J THz = c ε 0 [ E THz ( r , t ) ] 2 r d r d φ d t = c ε 0 K eff 2 J opt 2 A opt .
r det = r THz 2 π c f det ω THz A THz = 2 c f det ω THz r THz
E det ( r = 0 , t ) = E det 0 d d t T ( t )
with E det 0 = K eff J opt 2 π c f det

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