Abstract

We demonstrate a promising method to fabricate large-area periodic structures with desired defects by using the combination of multiple-exposure two-beam interference and mask-photolithography techniques. Multiple-exposure of two-beam interference pattern at 325 nm into a positive AZ-4620 (or a negative SU-8) photopolymerizable photoresist is used to form a square and hexagonal two-dimensional periodic structures. Desired defects are introduced in these structures by irradiating the sample with one beam of the same laser through a mask in which the design of defects is patterned. A 1cm x 1cm periodic structures with the lattice constant as small as 365nm embedding several kinds of defect, such as waveguide or Mach-Zehnder, was obtained by employing this combination technique. It shows that the proposed combination technique is useful for mass production of photonic crystal optoelectronics devices.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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Adv. Mater.

W. Lee, S. A. Pruzinsky, P. V. Braun, �??Multi-photon polymerization of waveguide structures within three-dimensional photonic crystals,�?? Adv. Mater. 14, 271-274 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Vogelaar, W. Nijdam, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, R. M. de Ridder, F. B. Segerink, E. Fluck, L. Kuipers, N. F. van Hulst, �??Large area photonic crystal slabs for visible light with waveguiding defect structures: Fabrication with focused ion beam assisted laser interference lithography,�?? Adv. Mater. 13, 1551-1554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

X. Yang, L. Cai, Q. Liu, �??Polarization optimization in the interference of four umbrellalike symmetric beams for making three-dimensional periodic microstructures,�?? Appl. Opt. 32, 6894-6900 (2002).

L. Pang, W. Nakagawa, Y. Fainman:, �??Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals with controlled defects by use of multiple exposures and direct write,�?? Appl. Opt. 42, 5450-5456 (2003).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. B. Sun, V. Mizeikis, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, J. Y. Ye, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, �??Microcavities in polymeric photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1-3 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I.-C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, �??Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392-3394 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. -H. Ye, S. Badilescu, V. -V. Truong, �??Large-scale ordered macroporous SiO2 thin films by a template-directed method,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 616-618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar, D. Nedeljkovic, T. Doll, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, T. P. Pearsall, �??Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1937-1939 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, J. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, H. Chenand, D. Deppe, �??High quality two-dimensional photonic crystal slab cavities,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289-4291 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, C. Gmachl, �??Experimental demonstration of a high quality factor photonic crystal microcavity,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915-1917 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Shoji, S. Kawata, �??Photofabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals by multibeam laser interference into a photopolymerizable resin,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2668-2670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Miklyaev, D. C. Meisel, A. Blanco, G. V. Freymann, K. Busch, W. Koch, C. Enkrich, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, �??Three-dimensional face-centered-cubic photonic crystal templates by laser holography: fabrication, optical characterization, and band-structure calculations,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1284-1286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, H. Misawa, �??Multiphoton fabrication of periodic structures by multibeam interference of femtosecond pulses,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2758-2760 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Ullal, M. Maldovan, E. L. Thomas, G. Chen, Y. -J. Han, S. Yang, �??Photonic crystals through holographic lithography: Simple cubic, diamond-like, and gyroid-like structures,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5434-5436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, �??Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786-788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, J. R. Sambles, �?? The fabrication of submicron hexagonal arrays using multiple-exposure optical interferometry,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1662-1664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, E. Costard, �??Photonic band gaps and holography,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Engineer.

C. Moormann, J. Bolten, H. Kurz, �??Spatial phase-locked combination lithography for photonic crystals devices,�?? Microelectron. Engineer. 73-74, 417-422 (2004).

Nanotechnology

L. Prodan, T. G. Euser, H. A. G. M. van Wolferen, C. Bostan, R. M. de Ridder, R. Beigang, L. Kuipers, �??Large-area two-dimensional silicon photonic crystals for infrared light fabricated with laser interference lithography,�?? Nanotechnology 15, 639-642 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, �??Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,�?? Nature 386, 143-149 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, �??Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,�?? Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, C. M. Soukoulis, �??Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,�?? Nature Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E

H. M. Su, Y. C. Zhong, X. Wang, X. G. Zheng, J. F. Xu, H. Z. Wang, �??Effects of polarization on laser holography for microstructure fabrication,�?? Phys. Rev. E 67, 056619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Yablonovitch, �??Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. John, �??Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, A. Chutinan, �??Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-Infrared wavelengths,�?? Science 289, 604-606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. -Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, �??Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,�?? Science 282, 274-276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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