Abstract

We demonstrate a novel mechanism for low power optical detection and modulation in a slotted waveguide geometry filled with nonlinear electro-optic polymers. The nanoscale confinement of the optical mode, combined with its close proximity to electrical contacts, enables the direct conversion of optical energy to electrical energy, without external bias, via optical rectification, and also enhances electro-optic modulation. We demonstrate this process for power levels in the sub-milliwatt regime, as compared to the kilowatt regime in which optical nonlinear effects are typically observed at short length scales. Our results suggest that a new class of detectors based on nonlinear optics may be practical.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A.S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, �??A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,�?? Nature 427, 615-618 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Scherer, O. Painter, J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, �??Photonic crystals for confining, guiding and emitting light,�?? IEEE T. Nanotechnol. 1, 4-11 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, �??Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate,�?? Opt. Commun 146, 31-33 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. Silicon Genesis Corporation, 61 Daggett Drive, San Jose, CA 95134.
  14. Dendrimer Material results are currently in preparation
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  17. R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition (Academic Press, New York, 2003).
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    [CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, �??High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, D. H. Auston, C. J. Wu, J. T. Yardley, �??Generation of Terahertz Radiation From a Poled polymer,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett., 67, 1358-1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Graf, H. Sigg, W. Bachtold, �??High-frequency electrical pulse generation using optical rectification in bulk GaAs,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2647-2649 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, M. C. Oh, H. Zhang, W. H. Steier, �??Low V-pi electrooptic modulators from CLD-1: Chromophore design and synthesis, material processing, and characterization,�?? Chem. Mater. 13, 3043-3050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, J. P. Lorenzo, �??All-Silicon Active and Passive Guided-Wave Components For Lambda=1.3 and 1.6 MU-M,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 873-879 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE T. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. Scherer, O. Painter, J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, T. Yoshie, �??Photonic crystals for confining, guiding and emitting light,�?? IEEE T. Nanotechnol. 1, 4-11 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

Y. Y. Huang, G. T. Paloczi, A. Yariv, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, �??Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography,�?? J. Phys. Chem. B. 108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A.S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, �??A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,�?? Nature 427, 615-618 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun (1)

A. Layadi, A. Vonsovici, R. Orobtchouk, D. Pascal, A. Koster, �??Low-loss optical waveguide on standard SOI/SIMOX substrate,�?? Opt. Commun 146, 31-33 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Bass, P. A. Franken, J. F. Ward, G. Weinreich, �??Optical Rectification,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 446 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Chem. (1)

L. R. Dalton, �??Organic electro-optic materials,�?? Pure Appl. Chem. 76, 1421-1433 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

F. Pockels, Lehrbuch der Kristalloptik (B. G. Teubner, Leipzig and Berlin, 1906).

Silicon Genesis Corporation, 61 Daggett Drive, San Jose, CA 95134.

Dendrimer Material results are currently in preparation

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics, (Artech House, Boston, MA, 1995).

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition (Academic Press, New York, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Synthesis of YLD 124.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Panel A shows a cross section of the geometry with optical mode superimposed on a waveguide. Panel B shows a SEM image of the resonator electrical contacts. Panel C shows the logical layout of device, superimposed on a SEM image. Panel D is an image of the ring and the electrical contact structures.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Panel A shows the transmission spectrum of detector device 1, whereas B shows detector device 2. Panel C shows several curves of current vs. power for three measurement series. Series 1 is of the first device with the wavelength at1549.26 nm, on a resonance peak. Series 2 is the first device with the wavelength at 1550.5 nm off resonance. Series 3 is for device 2, with the wavelength at 1551.3, on resonance. Finally, panel D shows the output current as a function of wavelength, overlaid with the transmission spectrum. The transmission spectrum has been arbitrarily rescaled to show the contrast.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bit pattern generated by Pockels’ Effect modulation 5 dB. The vertical axis represents input voltage and output power, both in arbitrary units. Horizontal axis is time in microseconds. Voltage swing is on the input signal is 20 volts.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Polling Results. Part A shows the dependence of the steady state observed current after room temperature biasing with various voltage polarities for one devices. The device was originally polled with a -12 V bias, though at 110 C. With one exception, applying a voltage in the direction of the original polling voltage enhances current conversion efficiencies, while applying a voltage against the direction of the polling voltage reduces the current conversion efficiencies. It should be noted that the power coupled on-chip in these experiments was less than 1 mW due to coupler loss. Part B shows the behavior of several different devices immediately after thermal polling or cycling without voltage. Measurements were taken sequentially from top to bottom for a given device. The only anomaly is the third measurement on device 2; this was after significant testing, and the current observed was substantially less than was observed in previous tests on the same device. We suspect that the polymer was degraded by repeated testing in this case.Part A:

Equations (7)

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D i = ε 0 ( ε r E i + χ ijk 2 E j E k + )
10 8 P V m
E optical ( t ) = A cos ( w t + θ )
E optical 2 = A 2 2 cos ( 2 ( w t + θ ) ) + A 2 2
D x = 0
D x + = ε 0 ( ε r C + χ 2 C 2 + 2 χ 2 A 2 )
C = 2 χ 2 ε r A 2

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