Abstract

We report a miniature hydrogen sensor that consists of a sub-wavelength diameter tapered optical fiber coated with an ultra thin palladium film. The optical properties of the palladium layer changes when the device is exposed to hydrogen. Consequently, the absorption of the evanescent waves also changes. The sensor was tested in a simple light transmission measurement setup that consisted of a 1550 nm laser diode and a photodetector. Our sensor is much smaller and faster than other optical hydrogen sensors reported so far. The sensor proposed here is suitable for detecting low concentrations of hydrogen at normal conditions.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 1025–1035 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm? URI=OPEX-12-6-1025.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293, 1289–1292 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. X. T. Zhou, J. Q. Hu, C. P. Li, D. D. D. Ma, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires as chemical sensors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 220–224 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. O. K. Varghese, D. Gong, M. Paulose, K. G. Ong, and C. A. Grimes, “Hydrogen sensing using titania nanotubes,” Sens. Actuators B 93, 338–344 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Z. Atashbar, D. Banerji, and S. Singamaneni, “Room-temperature hydrogen sensor based on palladium nanowires,” IEEE Sensors J. (to be published).
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    [Crossref]
  14. J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and E. Mejía, “Fabrication and modeling of uniform-waist singlemode tapered optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2278–2283 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. Wyzykowski, A. Rodzik, and B. Baranowski, “Optical transmission and reflection of PdHx thin films,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 2269–2277 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. A. Butler, “Micromirror optical-fiber hydrogen sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 22, 155–163 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. T. Cheng, Y. Li, D. Lisi, and W. M. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of Pd/Ni films for hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 30, 11–16 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers,” IEEE Sensors J. 3, 533–537 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Villatoro, D. Luna-Moreno, and D. Monzón Hernández, “Optical fiber hydrogen sensor for concentrations below the lower explosive limit,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).
  21. B. Chadwick, Tann, M. Brungs, and M. Gal, “A hydrogen sensor based on the optical generation of surface plasmons in a palladium alloy,” Sens. Actuators B 17, 215–220 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor using an optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118–124 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  23. Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “Time-domain fiber laser hydrogen sensor,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2461–2463 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

2003 (5)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. T. Zhou, J. Q. Hu, C. P. Li, D. D. D. Ma, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires as chemical sensors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 220–224 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. K. Varghese, D. Gong, M. Paulose, K. G. Ong, and C. A. Grimes, “Hydrogen sensing using titania nanotubes,” Sens. Actuators B 93, 338–344 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers,” IEEE Sensors J. 3, 533–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and E. Mejía, “Fabrication and modeling of uniform-waist singlemode tapered optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2278–2283 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor using an optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293, 1289–1292 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Favier, E. C. Walter, M. P. Zach, T. Benter, and R. M. Penner, “Hydrogen sensors and switches from electrodeposited palladium mesowire arrays,” Science 293, 2227–2231 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. Zhou, M.G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. Dai, “Nanotube molecular wires as chemical sensors,” Science 287, 622–625 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

Y. T. Cheng, Y. Li, D. Lisi, and W. M. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of Pd/Ni films for hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 30, 11–16 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

M. A. Butler, “Micromirror optical-fiber hydrogen sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 22, 155–163 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. Chadwick, Tann, M. Brungs, and M. Gal, “A hydrogen sensor based on the optical generation of surface plasmons in a palladium alloy,” Sens. Actuators B 17, 215–220 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

K. Wyzykowski, A. Rodzik, and B. Baranowski, “Optical transmission and reflection of PdHx thin films,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 2269–2277 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson. “Low loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476–1482, (1988).
[Crossref]

Andres, M. V.

Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “Time-domain fiber laser hydrogen sensor,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2461–2463 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers,” IEEE Sensors J. 3, 533–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atashbar, M. Z.

M. Z. Atashbar, D. Banerji, and S. Singamaneni, “Room-temperature hydrogen sensor based on palladium nanowires,” IEEE Sensors J. (to be published).

Balykin, J. I.

F. L. Kien, J. Q. Liang, K. Hakuta, and J. I. Balykin, “Field intensity distributions and polarization orientations in a vacuum-clad subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 242, 445–455 (2004).
[Crossref]

Banerji, D.

M. Z. Atashbar, D. Banerji, and S. Singamaneni, “Room-temperature hydrogen sensor based on palladium nanowires,” IEEE Sensors J. (to be published).

Baranowski, B.

K. Wyzykowski, A. Rodzik, and B. Baranowski, “Optical transmission and reflection of PdHx thin films,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 2269–2277 (1989).
[Crossref]

Barmenkov, Yu. O.

Benter, T.

F. Favier, E. C. Walter, M. P. Zach, T. Benter, and R. M. Penner, “Hydrogen sensors and switches from electrodeposited palladium mesowire arrays,” Science 293, 2227–2231 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bévenot, X.

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor using an optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bilodeau, F.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson. “Low loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476–1482, (1988).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

Brungs, M.

B. Chadwick, Tann, M. Brungs, and M. Gal, “A hydrogen sensor based on the optical generation of surface plasmons in a palladium alloy,” Sens. Actuators B 17, 215–220 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bures, J.

Butler, M. A.

M. A. Butler, “Micromirror optical-fiber hydrogen sensor,” Sens. Actuators B 22, 155–163 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chadwick, B.

B. Chadwick, Tann, M. Brungs, and M. Gal, “A hydrogen sensor based on the optical generation of surface plasmons in a palladium alloy,” Sens. Actuators B 17, 215–220 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chapline, M.G.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. Zhou, M.G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. Dai, “Nanotube molecular wires as chemical sensors,” Science 287, 622–625 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y. T.

Y. T. Cheng, Y. Li, D. Lisi, and W. M. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of Pd/Ni films for hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 30, 11–16 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cho, K.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. Zhou, M.G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. Dai, “Nanotube molecular wires as chemical sensors,” Science 287, 622–625 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clément, M.

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor using an optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cruz, J. L.

Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “Time-domain fiber laser hydrogen sensor,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2461–2463 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers,” IEEE Sensors J. 3, 533–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293, 1289–1292 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. Zhou, M.G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. Dai, “Nanotube molecular wires as chemical sensors,” Science 287, 622–625 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diez, A.

Yu. O. Barmenkov, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “Time-domain fiber laser hydrogen sensor,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2461–2463 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Villatoro, A. Diez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andres, “In-line highly sensitive hydrogen sensors based on Pd-coated single-mode tapered fibers,” IEEE Sensors J. 3, 533–537 (2003).
[Crossref]

Faucher, S.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson. “Low loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476–1482, (1988).
[Crossref]

Favier, F.

F. Favier, E. C. Walter, M. P. Zach, T. Benter, and R. M. Penner, “Hydrogen sensors and switches from electrodeposited palladium mesowire arrays,” Science 293, 2227–2231 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finazzi, V.

Franklin, N. R.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. Zhou, M.G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. Dai, “Nanotube molecular wires as chemical sensors,” Science 287, 622–625 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gagnaire, H.

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor using an optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gal, M.

B. Chadwick, Tann, M. Brungs, and M. Gal, “A hydrogen sensor based on the optical generation of surface plasmons in a palladium alloy,” Sens. Actuators B 17, 215–220 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghosh, R.

Gong, D.

O. K. Varghese, D. Gong, M. Paulose, K. G. Ong, and C. A. Grimes, “Hydrogen sensing using titania nanotubes,” Sens. Actuators B 93, 338–344 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grimes, C. A.

O. K. Varghese, D. Gong, M. Paulose, K. G. Ong, and C. A. Grimes, “Hydrogen sensing using titania nanotubes,” Sens. Actuators B 93, 338–344 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hakuta, K.

F. L. Kien, J. Q. Liang, K. Hakuta, and J. I. Balykin, “Field intensity distributions and polarization orientations in a vacuum-clad subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 242, 445–455 (2004).
[Crossref]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, K. O.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson. “Low loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476–1482, (1988).
[Crossref]

Hu, J. Q.

X. T. Zhou, J. Q. Hu, C. P. Li, D. D. D. Ma, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires as chemical sensors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 220–224 (2003).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. C.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson. “Low loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476–1482, (1988).
[Crossref]

Kenny, R. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kien, F. L.

F. L. Kien, J. Q. Liang, K. Hakuta, and J. I. Balykin, “Field intensity distributions and polarization orientations in a vacuum-clad subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 242, 445–455 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. Zhou, M.G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. Dai, “Nanotube molecular wires as chemical sensors,” Science 287, 622–625 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. S.

X. T. Zhou, J. Q. Hu, C. P. Li, D. D. D. Ma, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires as chemical sensors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 220–224 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. T.

X. T. Zhou, J. Q. Hu, C. P. Li, D. D. D. Ma, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires as chemical sensors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 220–224 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, C. P.

X. T. Zhou, J. Q. Hu, C. P. Li, D. D. D. Ma, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires as chemical sensors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 220–224 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. T. Cheng, Y. Li, D. Lisi, and W. M. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of Pd/Ni films for hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 30, 11–16 (1996).
[Crossref]

Liang, J. Q.

F. L. Kien, J. Q. Liang, K. Hakuta, and J. I. Balykin, “Field intensity distributions and polarization orientations in a vacuum-clad subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 242, 445–455 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lieber, C. M.

Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293, 1289–1292 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lisi, D.

Y. T. Cheng, Y. Li, D. Lisi, and W. M. Wang, “Preparation and characterization of Pd/Ni films for hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 30, 11–16 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lou, J.

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luna-Moreno, D.

J. Villatoro, D. Luna-Moreno, and D. Monzón Hernández, “Optical fiber hydrogen sensor for concentrations below the lower explosive limit,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

Ma, D. D. D.

X. T. Zhou, J. Q. Hu, C. P. Li, D. D. D. Ma, C. S. Lee, and S. T. Lee, “Silicon nanowires as chemical sensors,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 220–224 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 1025–1035 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm? URI=OPEX-12-6-1025.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mejía, E.

Monzón Hernández, D.

J. Villatoro, D. Luna-Moreno, and D. Monzón Hernández, “Optical fiber hydrogen sensor for concentrations below the lower explosive limit,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

Monzón-Hernández, D.

Oakley, K. P.

R. P. Kenny, T. A. Birks, and K. P. Oakley, “Control of optical fiber taper shape,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1654–1656 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ong, K. G.

O. K. Varghese, D. Gong, M. Paulose, K. G. Ong, and C. A. Grimes, “Hydrogen sensing using titania nanotubes,” Sens. Actuators B 93, 338–344 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Park, H.

Y. Cui, Q. Wei, H. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293, 1289–1292 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulose, M.

O. K. Varghese, D. Gong, M. Paulose, K. G. Ong, and C. A. Grimes, “Hydrogen sensing using titania nanotubes,” Sens. Actuators B 93, 338–344 (2003).
[Crossref]

Peng, S.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. Zhou, M.G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. Dai, “Nanotube molecular wires as chemical sensors,” Science 287, 622–625 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Penner, R. M.

F. Favier, E. C. Walter, M. P. Zach, T. Benter, and R. M. Penner, “Hydrogen sensors and switches from electrodeposited palladium mesowire arrays,” Science 293, 2227–2231 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

Rodzik, A.

K. Wyzykowski, A. Rodzik, and B. Baranowski, “Optical transmission and reflection of PdHx thin films,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 2269–2277 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singamaneni, S.

M. Z. Atashbar, D. Banerji, and S. Singamaneni, “Room-temperature hydrogen sensor based on palladium nanowires,” IEEE Sensors J. (to be published).

Tann,

B. Chadwick, Tann, M. Brungs, and M. Gal, “A hydrogen sensor based on the optical generation of surface plasmons in a palladium alloy,” Sens. Actuators B 17, 215–220 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tong, L.

Tong, L. M.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426, 816–819 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trouillet, A.

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor using an optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref]

Varghese, O. K.

O. K. Varghese, D. Gong, M. Paulose, K. G. Ong, and C. A. Grimes, “Hydrogen sensing using titania nanotubes,” Sens. Actuators B 93, 338–344 (2003).
[Crossref]

Veillas, C.

X. Bévenot, A. Trouillet, C. Veillas, H. Gagnaire, and M. Clément, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor using an optical fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 13, 118–124 (2002).
[Crossref]

Villatoro, J.

J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, and E. Mejía, “Fabrication and modeling of uniform-waist singlemode tapered optical fiber sensors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2278–2283 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Villatoro, D. Luna-Moreno, and D. Monzón Hernández, “Optical fiber hydrogen sensor for concentrations below the lower explosive limit,” Sens. Actuators B (to be published).

M. Z. Atashbar, D. Banerji, and S. Singamaneni, “Room-temperature hydrogen sensor based on palladium nanowires,” IEEE Sensors J. (to be published).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Illustration of a tapered optical fiber. ρ0 is the initial diameter, typically 125 µm. (b) Schematic cross section of the device. ρ is the waist diameter, L0 is the length of the waist, and t is the maximum thickness of the palladium film (shadowed area). λ refers to wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental results on the fabrication of a nano taper. The transmission was measured during the whole fabrication process. The monitored wavelength was 1550 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diagram of the experimental set-up used to test the sensors. MFC stands for mass flow controllers, LD for laser diode, and SMF for singlemode optical fiber.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Time response of a sensor when it was exposed to different hydrogen concentrations. (b) Transmission versus hydrogen concentration. Sensor parameters: ρ=1300 nm, L=2 mm, and t=4 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time response of the sensor described in Fig. 4 upon consecutive cycles from a pure nitrogen atmosphere to a mixture of 3.9% hydrogen in nitrogen.

Equations (1)

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P t = P 0 exp ( 2 r Δ α L ) .

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