Abstract

The patterning of an acrylamide-based photopolymer surface by holographic recording is studied. The patterns are induced by light alone and no post-processing is required. Periodic surface modulation is observed in addition to a volume phase grating. An investigation has been carried out using white light interferometry into the dependence of the amplitude of the photoinduced surface relief modulation on the spatial frequency, intensity of recording and sample thickness. The observed dependencies indicate that the diffusion of material during the holographic recording plays a major role in surface relief formation. The possibility for inscription of surface relief patterns opens the door to at least two new applications for this photopolymer: fabrication of diffractive optical elements and biosensors.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |

  1. Y. Boiko, V. Slovjev, S. Calixto and D. Lougnot, �??Dry photopolymer films for computer-generated infrared radiation focusing elements,�?? Appl. Opt. 33, 787-793, (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Croutxe-Barghorn and D. Lougnot, �??Use of self-processing dry photopolymers for the generation of relief optical elements: a photochemical study,�?? Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 811-825, (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Marquez, C. Neipp, A. Belendez, J. Campos, I. Pascual, M. Yzuel and A. Fimia, �??Low spatial frequency characterization of holographic recording materials applied to correlation,�?? J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 175-182, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Smirnova and O. Sakhno, �??A mechanism of the relief-phase structure formation in self-developing photopolymers,�?? Optics and Spectroscopy 3, 126-131, (2001).
  5. J. Jenney, �??Holographic recording with photopolymers�??, JOSA 60, 1155-1161, (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Martin, �??A new photopolymer recording material for holographic applications: Photochemical and holographic studies towards an optimized system,�?? Ph.D. Thesis, School of Physics, (Dublin Institute of Technology, (1995).
  7. S. Martin, C.A. Feely and V. Toal, �??Holographic recording characteristics of an acrylamide-based photopolymer,�?? Appl. Optics 36, 5757-5768, (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Zhao and P. Mourolis, �??Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 41 1929-1939 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. H. Kwon, H. C. Hwang and K. C. Woo, �??Analysis of temporal behaviour of beams diffracted by volume gratings formed in photopolymers,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1651-1657 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Piazzolla and B. Jenkins, �??First harmonic diffusion model for holographic grating formation in photopolymers,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1147-1157 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Lawrence, F. O�??Neill and J. Sheridan, �??Adjusted intensity nonlocal diffusion model of photopolymer grating formation,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 621-629 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. Jallapuram, R. Howard, V. Toal, �??Investigations of the diffusion processes in self-processing acrylamide-based photopolymer system,�?? Applied Optics 43, 2900, (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Suzanne Martin, Izabela Naydenova , Raghavendra Jallapuram, Vincent Toal, Robert Howard, Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics, DIT, Kevin street, Dublin 8, Dublin, Ireland, are preparing a manuscript to be called �??Two way diffusion model for the recording mechanism in a self developing dry acrylamide photopolymer�??
  14. P. Munk, �??Introduction to macromolecular science�??, Wiley, New York, (2001).
  15. V. Moreau, Y. Renotte and Y. Lion, �??Characterisation of DuPont photopolymer: determination of kinetic parameters in a diffusion model,�?? Appl. Opt. 41, 3427-3435 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. W. Atkins, �??Physical chemistry�??, Fifth Ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, (1994).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Optics (1)

S. Martin, C.A. Feely and V. Toal, �??Holographic recording characteristics of an acrylamide-based photopolymer,�?? Appl. Optics 36, 5757-5768, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Applied Optics (1)

I. Naydenova, S. Martin, R. Jallapuram, R. Howard, V. Toal, �??Investigations of the diffusion processes in self-processing acrylamide-based photopolymer system,�?? Applied Optics 43, 2900, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. Zhao and P. Mourolis, �??Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,�?? J. Mod. Opt. 41 1929-1939 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. Marquez, C. Neipp, A. Belendez, J. Campos, I. Pascual, M. Yzuel and A. Fimia, �??Low spatial frequency characterization of holographic recording materials applied to correlation,�?? J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 175-182, (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

JOSA (1)

J. Jenney, �??Holographic recording with photopolymers�??, JOSA 60, 1155-1161, (1970).
[CrossRef]

Optics and Spectroscopy (1)

T. Smirnova and O. Sakhno, �??A mechanism of the relief-phase structure formation in self-developing photopolymers,�?? Optics and Spectroscopy 3, 126-131, (2001).

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

C. Croutxe-Barghorn and D. Lougnot, �??Use of self-processing dry photopolymers for the generation of relief optical elements: a photochemical study,�?? Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 811-825, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

S. Martin, �??A new photopolymer recording material for holographic applications: Photochemical and holographic studies towards an optimized system,�?? Ph.D. Thesis, School of Physics, (Dublin Institute of Technology, (1995).

Suzanne Martin, Izabela Naydenova , Raghavendra Jallapuram, Vincent Toal, Robert Howard, Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics, DIT, Kevin street, Dublin 8, Dublin, Ireland, are preparing a manuscript to be called �??Two way diffusion model for the recording mechanism in a self developing dry acrylamide photopolymer�??

P. Munk, �??Introduction to macromolecular science�??, Wiley, New York, (2001).

P. W. Atkins, �??Physical chemistry�??, Fifth Ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, (1994).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Holographic set-up of recording at spatial frequencies above 100 l/mm a) and below 100 l/mm b), SF-spatial filter, CL- collimating lens, PS — photopolymer sample, M- mirror, S — shutter, SC — shutter controller.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Patterns recording. After recording of the first grating a) the sample is rotated at 90° and a second grating with the same b) or different spatial frequency c) is recorded.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Position of the surface relief peaks when a simple diffraction grating is recorded. Light illumination leads to well distinguished consecutive bleached and unbleached stripes. a) Surface scan with Dektak_3 profiler equipped with video camera correlates the position of the peaks with the bleached regions b). PL- photopolymer, GS — glass substrate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Surface relief modulation in µm at spatial frequency of 10 l/mm after recording for 0.5 s (a), 10 s (b), 30 s (c) and 90 s (d). The recording intensity is 2.5mW/cm2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Intensity dependence at spatial frequency of recording of 10 l/mm a) and 100 l/mm b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependence of the surface relief amplitude on the spatial frequency of recording. The surface is scanned after recording for 30 s at 532 nm with intensity of 2mW/cm2. The error is within the size of the symbols.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The diaphragm of the WLI profiler a) was imaged on the photopolymer film surface and the examined with phase contrast microscope b).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The boundary between the illuminated and dark region, marked with the black rectangle in Fig.7b) was studied after different times of exposure from 5 to 1800 s c). The formation and the development of the two counter propagating waves at the edge of illuminated and non illuminated areas are observed.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Patterns inscribed after two consequent recordings using the same spatial frequency a) and changing the spatial frequency between the two recordings b).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x d = 2 Dt π ,

Metrics