Abstract

We show that high efficiency stimulated Raman scattering can be obtained using hollow core photonic crystal fiber with the core filled with a low refractive index nonlinear liquid. This new architecture opens new perspectives in the development of nonlinear functions as any kind of nonlinear liquid media can now be used to implement them, with original properties not accessible with silica core fibers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Eckhardt, R.W. Hellwarth, F.J. McClung, S.E. Schwarz, D. Weiner, and E.J. Woodbury. “Stimulated Raman Scattering from organic liquids” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 455 (1962)
    [Crossref]
  2. Y.R. Shen “The principles of nonlinear optics” (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1984).
  3. E. Desurvire, “Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Principle and Applications” (Wiley, New York, 1994).
  4. R. Frey and F. Pradère “Powerful tunable infrared generation by stimulated Raman Scattering” Opt. Commun. 12, 98 (1974)
    [Crossref]
  5. Kafing Keita, Robert Frey, Philippe Delaye, Daniel Dolfi, Jean-Pierre Huignard, and Gérald Roosen “Stimulated Raman amplification of small optically carried microwave signals” Submitted for publication
  6. L.S. Meng, K.S. Repasky, P.A. Roos, and J.L. Carlsten “Widely tunable continuous-wave Raman laser in diatomic hydrogen pumped by an external-cavity diode laser” Opt. Lett. 25472 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. E.M. Dianov “Advances in Raman fibers” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1457 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  8. V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B201427 (2003)
  9. J. Stone “CW Raman fiber amplifier” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1975)
    [Crossref]
  10. A.R. Chraplyvy and T.J. Bridges, “Infrared generation by means of multiple order stimulated Raman scattering in CCl4 and CbrCl3-filled hollow silica fibers” Opt. Lett. 6, 632 (1981)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Chen, L. Wang, X. Lu, Y. Chen, and M. Qiu, “Stimulated Raman scattering and four wave mixing from a mixture of carbon disulfide and phenylethanol in a hollow optical fiber” Opt. Lett. 16, 1469 (1991)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J.H. Yin, S.Q. Gao, Z.W. Li, Y.N. Yu, G.H. Lu, and Y.J Tian “Effect of solution concentration on the Raman scattering cross-section of carbon tetrachloride” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 1042 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Altkorn, I. Koev, R.P. Van-Duyne, and M. Litorja. “Low-loss liquid-core optical fiber for low-refractive-index liquids: fabrication, characterization, and application in Raman spectroscopy” Applied Optics 36, 8992 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. T.A. Birks, P.J. Roberts, P. S.J. Russell, D.M. Atkin, and T.J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures” Electronics Letters,  31, 1941(1995).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air” Science 285, 1537 (1999)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. F. Benabid, J.C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P.S.J. Russell. “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber” Science,  298, 399 (2002)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St J. Russell “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres” Nature,  434, 488 (2005)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, V. P. Mitrokhin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov. “Phase-matched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 129 (2005)
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8601–605 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Lewis and T. Knudston, “The spatial growth rate of stimulated raman scattering in ethanol” Chemical Physics 55, 73–83 (1981)
    [Crossref]
  21. M. J. Colles and J.E. Griffiths “Relative and absolute Raman scattering cross sections in liquids” J. Chemical Physics 56, 3384 (1972)
    [Crossref]
  22. C. Yijiang and A.W. Snyder “Saturation and depletion effect of Raman scattering in optical fibers” J. Lightwave Technol. 71109 (1989)
    [Crossref]
  23. R.H. Stolen, C. Lee, and R.K. Jain “Development of the stimulated Raman spectrum in single mode silica fibers” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1652 (1984)
    [Crossref]

2005 (2)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St J. Russell “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres” Nature,  434, 488 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, V. P. Mitrokhin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov. “Phase-matched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 129 (2005)
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J.H. Yin, S.Q. Gao, Z.W. Li, Y.N. Yu, G.H. Lu, and Y.J Tian “Effect of solution concentration on the Raman scattering cross-section of carbon tetrachloride” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 1042 (2004)
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B201427 (2003)

2002 (2)

E.M. Dianov “Advances in Raman fibers” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1457 (2002)
[Crossref]

F. Benabid, J.C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P.S.J. Russell. “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber” Science,  298, 399 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air” Science 285, 1537 (1999)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

R. Altkorn, I. Koev, R.P. Van-Duyne, and M. Litorja. “Low-loss liquid-core optical fiber for low-refractive-index liquids: fabrication, characterization, and application in Raman spectroscopy” Applied Optics 36, 8992 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8601–605 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T.A. Birks, P.J. Roberts, P. S.J. Russell, D.M. Atkin, and T.J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures” Electronics Letters,  31, 1941(1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

C. Yijiang and A.W. Snyder “Saturation and depletion effect of Raman scattering in optical fibers” J. Lightwave Technol. 71109 (1989)
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1981 (2)

1975 (1)

J. Stone “CW Raman fiber amplifier” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1975)
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. Frey and F. Pradère “Powerful tunable infrared generation by stimulated Raman Scattering” Opt. Commun. 12, 98 (1974)
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

M. J. Colles and J.E. Griffiths “Relative and absolute Raman scattering cross sections in liquids” J. Chemical Physics 56, 3384 (1972)
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

G. Eckhardt, R.W. Hellwarth, F.J. McClung, S.E. Schwarz, D. Weiner, and E.J. Woodbury. “Stimulated Raman Scattering from organic liquids” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 455 (1962)
[Crossref]

Allan, D.C.

R. F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air” Science 285, 1537 (1999)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altkorn, R.

R. Altkorn, I. Koev, R.P. Van-Duyne, and M. Litorja. “Low-loss liquid-core optical fiber for low-refractive-index liquids: fabrication, characterization, and application in Raman spectroscopy” Applied Optics 36, 8992 (1997).
[Crossref]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J.C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P.S.J. Russell. “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber” Science,  298, 399 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atkin, D.M.

T.A. Birks, P.J. Roberts, P. S.J. Russell, D.M. Atkin, and T.J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures” Electronics Letters,  31, 1941(1995).
[Crossref]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St J. Russell “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres” Nature,  434, 488 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J.C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P.S.J. Russell. “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber” Science,  298, 399 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St J. Russell “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres” Nature,  434, 488 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T.A.

R. F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air” Science 285, 1537 (1999)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.A. Birks, P.J. Roberts, P. S.J. Russell, D.M. Atkin, and T.J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures” Electronics Letters,  31, 1941(1995).
[Crossref]

Bridges, T.J.

Carlsten, J.L.

Chen, Y.

Chraplyvy, A.R.

Colles, M. J.

M. J. Colles and J.E. Griffiths “Relative and absolute Raman scattering cross sections in liquids” J. Chemical Physics 56, 3384 (1972)
[Crossref]

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St J. Russell “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres” Nature,  434, 488 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air” Science 285, 1537 (1999)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delaye, Philippe

Kafing Keita, Robert Frey, Philippe Delaye, Daniel Dolfi, Jean-Pierre Huignard, and Gérald Roosen “Stimulated Raman amplification of small optically carried microwave signals” Submitted for publication

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, “Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Principle and Applications” (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Dianov, E.M.

Dolfi, Daniel

Kafing Keita, Robert Frey, Philippe Delaye, Daniel Dolfi, Jean-Pierre Huignard, and Gérald Roosen “Stimulated Raman amplification of small optically carried microwave signals” Submitted for publication

Eckhardt, G.

G. Eckhardt, R.W. Hellwarth, F.J. McClung, S.E. Schwarz, D. Weiner, and E.J. Woodbury. “Stimulated Raman Scattering from organic liquids” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 455 (1962)
[Crossref]

Fedotov, A. B.

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, V. P. Mitrokhin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov. “Phase-matched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 129 (2005)
[Crossref]

Finazzi, V.

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B201427 (2003)

Frey, R.

R. Frey and F. Pradère “Powerful tunable infrared generation by stimulated Raman Scattering” Opt. Commun. 12, 98 (1974)
[Crossref]

Frey, Robert

Kafing Keita, Robert Frey, Philippe Delaye, Daniel Dolfi, Jean-Pierre Huignard, and Gérald Roosen “Stimulated Raman amplification of small optically carried microwave signals” Submitted for publication

Gao, S.Q.

J.H. Yin, S.Q. Gao, Z.W. Li, Y.N. Yu, G.H. Lu, and Y.J Tian “Effect of solution concentration on the Raman scattering cross-section of carbon tetrachloride” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 1042 (2004)
[Crossref]

Griffiths, J.E.

M. J. Colles and J.E. Griffiths “Relative and absolute Raman scattering cross sections in liquids” J. Chemical Physics 56, 3384 (1972)
[Crossref]

Hellwarth, R.W.

G. Eckhardt, R.W. Hellwarth, F.J. McClung, S.E. Schwarz, D. Weiner, and E.J. Woodbury. “Stimulated Raman Scattering from organic liquids” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 455 (1962)
[Crossref]

Huignard, Jean-Pierre

Kafing Keita, Robert Frey, Philippe Delaye, Daniel Dolfi, Jean-Pierre Huignard, and Gérald Roosen “Stimulated Raman amplification of small optically carried microwave signals” Submitted for publication

Jain, R.K.

Keita, Kafing

Kafing Keita, Robert Frey, Philippe Delaye, Daniel Dolfi, Jean-Pierre Huignard, and Gérald Roosen “Stimulated Raman amplification of small optically carried microwave signals” Submitted for publication

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St J. Russell “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres” Nature,  434, 488 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J.C.

F. Benabid, J.C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P.S.J. Russell. “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber” Science,  298, 399 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air” Science 285, 1537 (1999)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knudston, T.

M. Lewis and T. Knudston, “The spatial growth rate of stimulated raman scattering in ethanol” Chemical Physics 55, 73–83 (1981)
[Crossref]

Koev, I.

R. Altkorn, I. Koev, R.P. Van-Duyne, and M. Litorja. “Low-loss liquid-core optical fiber for low-refractive-index liquids: fabrication, characterization, and application in Raman spectroscopy” Applied Optics 36, 8992 (1997).
[Crossref]

Konorov, S. O.

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, V. P. Mitrokhin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov. “Phase-matched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 129 (2005)
[Crossref]

Köser, J.

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8601–605 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

Lewis, M.

M. Lewis and T. Knudston, “The spatial growth rate of stimulated raman scattering in ethanol” Chemical Physics 55, 73–83 (1981)
[Crossref]

Li, Z.W.

J.H. Yin, S.Q. Gao, Z.W. Li, Y.N. Yu, G.H. Lu, and Y.J Tian “Effect of solution concentration on the Raman scattering cross-section of carbon tetrachloride” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 1042 (2004)
[Crossref]

Litorja, M.

R. Altkorn, I. Koev, R.P. Van-Duyne, and M. Litorja. “Low-loss liquid-core optical fiber for low-refractive-index liquids: fabrication, characterization, and application in Raman spectroscopy” Applied Optics 36, 8992 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lu, G.H.

J.H. Yin, S.Q. Gao, Z.W. Li, Y.N. Yu, G.H. Lu, and Y.J Tian “Effect of solution concentration on the Raman scattering cross-section of carbon tetrachloride” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 1042 (2004)
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

Mangan, B.J.

R. F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air” Science 285, 1537 (1999)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McClung, F.J.

G. Eckhardt, R.W. Hellwarth, F.J. McClung, S.E. Schwarz, D. Weiner, and E.J. Woodbury. “Stimulated Raman Scattering from organic liquids” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 455 (1962)
[Crossref]

Meng, L.S.

Mitrokhin, V. P.

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, V. P. Mitrokhin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov. “Phase-matched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 129 (2005)
[Crossref]

Monro, T. M.

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B201427 (2003)

Pradère, F.

R. Frey and F. Pradère “Powerful tunable infrared generation by stimulated Raman Scattering” Opt. Commun. 12, 98 (1974)
[Crossref]

Qiu, M.

Repasky, K.S.

Rheims, J.

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8601–605 (1997).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B201427 (2003)

Roberts, P.J.

R. F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air” Science 285, 1537 (1999)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.A. Birks, P.J. Roberts, P. S.J. Russell, D.M. Atkin, and T.J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures” Electronics Letters,  31, 1941(1995).
[Crossref]

Roos, P.A.

Roosen, Gérald

Kafing Keita, Robert Frey, Philippe Delaye, Daniel Dolfi, Jean-Pierre Huignard, and Gérald Roosen “Stimulated Raman amplification of small optically carried microwave signals” Submitted for publication

Russell, P. S.J.

T.A. Birks, P.J. Roberts, P. S.J. Russell, D.M. Atkin, and T.J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures” Electronics Letters,  31, 1941(1995).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St J. Russell “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres” Nature,  434, 488 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P.S.

R. F. Cregan, B.J. Mangan, J.C. Knight, T.A. Birks, P.S. Russell, P.J. Roberts, and D.C. Allan “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air” Science 285, 1537 (1999)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P.S.J.

F. Benabid, J.C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P.S.J. Russell. “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber” Science,  298, 399 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, S.E.

G. Eckhardt, R.W. Hellwarth, F.J. McClung, S.E. Schwarz, D. Weiner, and E.J. Woodbury. “Stimulated Raman Scattering from organic liquids” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 455 (1962)
[Crossref]

Serebryannikov, E. E.

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, V. P. Mitrokhin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov. “Phase-matched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 129 (2005)
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.R.

Y.R. Shen “The principles of nonlinear optics” (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1984).

Shepherd, T.J.

T.A. Birks, P.J. Roberts, P. S.J. Russell, D.M. Atkin, and T.J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures” Electronics Letters,  31, 1941(1995).
[Crossref]

Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, V. P. Mitrokhin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov. “Phase-matched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 129 (2005)
[Crossref]

Snyder, A.W.

C. Yijiang and A.W. Snyder “Saturation and depletion effect of Raman scattering in optical fibers” J. Lightwave Technol. 71109 (1989)
[Crossref]

Stolen, R.H.

Stone, J.

J. Stone “CW Raman fiber amplifier” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1975)
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.J

J.H. Yin, S.Q. Gao, Z.W. Li, Y.N. Yu, G.H. Lu, and Y.J Tian “Effect of solution concentration on the Raman scattering cross-section of carbon tetrachloride” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 1042 (2004)
[Crossref]

Van-Duyne, R.P.

R. Altkorn, I. Koev, R.P. Van-Duyne, and M. Litorja. “Low-loss liquid-core optical fiber for low-refractive-index liquids: fabrication, characterization, and application in Raman spectroscopy” Applied Optics 36, 8992 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Weiner, D.

G. Eckhardt, R.W. Hellwarth, F.J. McClung, S.E. Schwarz, D. Weiner, and E.J. Woodbury. “Stimulated Raman Scattering from organic liquids” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 455 (1962)
[Crossref]

Woodbury, E.J.

G. Eckhardt, R.W. Hellwarth, F.J. McClung, S.E. Schwarz, D. Weiner, and E.J. Woodbury. “Stimulated Raman Scattering from organic liquids” Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 455 (1962)
[Crossref]

Wriedt, T.

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, “Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8601–605 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yijiang, C.

C. Yijiang and A.W. Snyder “Saturation and depletion effect of Raman scattering in optical fibers” J. Lightwave Technol. 71109 (1989)
[Crossref]

Yin, J.H.

J.H. Yin, S.Q. Gao, Z.W. Li, Y.N. Yu, G.H. Lu, and Y.J Tian “Effect of solution concentration on the Raman scattering cross-section of carbon tetrachloride” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 1042 (2004)
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.N.

J.H. Yin, S.Q. Gao, Z.W. Li, Y.N. Yu, G.H. Lu, and Y.J Tian “Effect of solution concentration on the Raman scattering cross-section of carbon tetrachloride” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 1042 (2004)
[Crossref]

Zheltikov, A. M.

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, V. P. Mitrokhin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov. “Phase-matched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 129 (2005)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Stone “CW Raman fiber amplifier” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 163 (1975)
[Crossref]

Applied Optics (1)

R. Altkorn, I. Koev, R.P. Van-Duyne, and M. Litorja. “Low-loss liquid-core optical fiber for low-refractive-index liquids: fabrication, characterization, and application in Raman spectroscopy” Applied Optics 36, 8992 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chemical Physics (1)

M. Lewis and T. Knudston, “The spatial growth rate of stimulated raman scattering in ethanol” Chemical Physics 55, 73–83 (1981)
[Crossref]

Electronics Letters (1)

T.A. Birks, P.J. Roberts, P. S.J. Russell, D.M. Atkin, and T.J. Shepherd, “Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures” Electronics Letters,  31, 1941(1995).
[Crossref]

J. Chemical Physics (1)

M. J. Colles and J.E. Griffiths “Relative and absolute Raman scattering cross sections in liquids” J. Chemical Physics 56, 3384 (1972)
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. Yijiang and A.W. Snyder “Saturation and depletion effect of Raman scattering in optical fibers” J. Lightwave Technol. 71109 (1989)
[Crossref]

E.M. Dianov “Advances in Raman fibers” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1457 (2002)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson “Small-core silica holey fibers: nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B201427 (2003)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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[Crossref]

S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, E. E. Serebryannikov, V. P. Mitrokhin, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, and A. M. Zheltikov. “Phase-matched coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in isolated air-guided modes of hollow photonic-crystal fibers” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 129 (2005)
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Nature (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St J. Russell “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres” Nature,  434, 488 (2005)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

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[Crossref]

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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Science (2)

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Kafing Keita, Robert Frey, Philippe Delaye, Daniel Dolfi, Jean-Pierre Huignard, and Gérald Roosen “Stimulated Raman amplification of small optically carried microwave signals” Submitted for publication

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of used fiber, (b) Optical microscope image of the end of the fiber filled with water and illuminated from above. The peripherical holes were closed on the side where liquid was inserted, and the fiber is observed on the cleaved other side. Only the central hole is filled with the liquid.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental set-up for the measurement of Stimulated Raman Scattering in liquid core photonic crystal fiber.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum of first Stokes lines at 630nm. The bold line represents an adjustment with a Lorentzian profile, with the given width.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity dependence of the transmitted pump, and Stokes lines as a function of the incident pump beam intensity. The insert shows the Stokes intensities on a log scale allowing a precise determination of the threshold.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Theoretical dependence of the pump and Stokes lines intensities.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Numerical value of the absorption and refractive index of ethanol used in numerical calculations. The absorption coefficients were measured with a 2 cm tank using a spectrophotometer. The refractive indices were calculated from the Cauchy dispersion formula with the coefficients given in [19]

Equations (3)

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d A p dz = α p 2 A p G 0 2 A p A sl + N sl A p 2
d A s 1 dz = α s 1 2 A sl + G 0 2 n p λ p n s 1 λ s 1 ( A p 2 ( A s 1 + N s 1 A p ) A s 1 A s 2 + N s 2 A s 1 2 )
d A s 2 dz = α s 2 2 A s 2 + G 0 2 n p λ p n s 2 λ s 2 A s 1 2 ( A s 2 + N s 2 A s 1 )

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