Abstract

It has recently been shown that a red blood cell (RBC) can be used as optically driven motor. The mechanism for rotation is however not fully understood. While the dependence on osmolarity of the buffer led us to conclude that the osmolarity dependent changes in shape of the cell are responsible for the observed rotation, role of ion gradients and folding of RBC to a rod shape has been invoked by Dharmadhikari et al to explain their observations. In this paper we report results of studies undertaken to understand the dynamics of a RBC when it is optically tweezed. The results obtained support our earlier conjecture that osmolarity dependent changes in shape of the cell are responsible for the observed rotation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arit, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, K. Dholakia, �??Controlled Rotation of Optically Trapped Microscopic Particles,�?? Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, �??Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249-251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.A. Dharmadhikari, S. Roy, A.K. Dharmadhikari, S. Sharma and D. Mathur, �??Naturally occurring, optically driven, cellular rotor,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6048-6050 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biotechnol. Lett. (2)

R. Dasgupta, S.K. Mohanty, P.K. Gupta, �??Rotation of transparent, nonbirefringent objects by transfer of the spin angular momentum of light,�?? Biotechnol. Lett. 25, 1625-1628 (2003); see also Opt. & Photon. News 14 (12), 16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Mohanty, A. Uppal, and P.K. Gupta, �??Self-rotation of red blood cells in optical tweezers: prospects for high throughput malaria diagnosis,�?? Biotechnol. Lett. 26, 971-974 (2004); see also Opt. & Photon. News 15 (12), 19 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

M. E. J. Friese, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Hewckenberg, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, �??Alignment or spinning of lasertrapped microscopic waveplates,�?? Nature 394, 348-350 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (3)

J.A. Dharmadhikari, S. Roy, A.K. Dharmadhikari, S. Sharma and D. Mathur, �??Torque-generating malariainfected red blood cells in an optical trap,�?? Opt. Express 12, 1179-1184 (2004). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1179." > http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1179.<a/>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, �??Orientation of flat particles in optical tweezers by linearly polarized light,�?? Opt. Express 11, 446-451 (2003). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-5-446." >http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-5-446.</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Grover, R. C. Gauthier and A. G. Skirtach, �??Analysis of the behavior of erythrocytes in an optical trapping system,�?? Opt. Express 7, 533-539 (2000). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-13-533.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-7-13-533.</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. I. Bishop, T. A. Nieminen, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, �??Optical application and measurement of torque on microparticles of isotropic nonabsorbing material,�?? Phys. Rev. A 68, 033802-1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, �??Direct Observation of Transfer of Angular Momentum to Absorptive Particles from a Laser Beam with a Phase Singularity,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 826 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, P. M. Chaikin and T. G. Mason, �??Light Streak Tracking of Optically Trapped Thin Microdisks,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 108303-1(2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, J. Arit, W. Sibbett, P. E. Bryant, K. Dholakia, �??Controlled Rotation of Optically Trapped Microscopic Particles,�?? Science 292, 912-914 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Rouse, Elementary Mechanics of Fluids, Ch. VIII, Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd, NewDelhi, India (1970).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the cross-section of the disk

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time-lapse digitized video images of RBC subjected to optical tweezing with trap beam power of 85 mW. The RBC is shown encircled for clarity and the location of the trap beam is shown by arrow. Time interval between consequent frames was 40 ms. In panel (a) the RBC is in horizontal plane. On being subjected to optical tweezing it gradually orients with its plane along the trap laser beam axis (panels b to f). Scale bar: 5µm

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Angle of orientation (with respect to horizontal) as a function of tweezing time. Square symbols are for 85 mW trapping power and circles are for 60 mW laser power at the trapping plane.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The estimated viscous orientational torque as a function of tweezing time. Square symbols are for 85 mW trapping power and circles are for 60 mW laser power at the trapping plane.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time-lapse images of reorientation of an optically trapped RBC back to the horizontal plane by subjecting it to a viscous force. The RBC is shown encircled for clarity and the location of the trap beam is shown by arrow. Time interval between consequent frames was 80 ms. Scale bar: 5µm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dependence of the speed of rotation of RBCs on the osmolarity of the buffer solution. The trap beam power was 85 mW.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Force diagram when RBC is trapped in isotonic (a) and hypertonic buffer (b).

Equations (4)

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d T D = F D × r = ( C D . 2 R d r ρ ω 2 r 2 2 ) . r . . . . . . . . . . .
T D = ( C D R . ρ ω 2 ) [ r 3 dr ] 0 R = C D ρ ω 2 R 2 4 . . . . . . . . . .
where Re = ρ . u . R η ρ . ω . R 2 η . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hence , T D = ( ρ ω 2 R 5 4 ) 24 ( ρ . ω . R 2 η ) = 6 ω η R 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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