Abstract

A novel modulator design incorporating an E-O polymer into a resonant grating waveguide structure is presented. Using purely polymeric material we developed a resonant grating waveguide structure having low loss and high finesse, with approximately 2nm spectral line width at 1.55µm. An externally applied voltage modulates the refractive index of the E-O waveguide, thereby shifting the resonance wavelength and modulating the incident light at MHz rates. Such modulator operates in free space and does not involve waveguide patterning nor the need for facet conditioning and coupling common to operation in the Mach-Zehnder type configuration.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Lee, “Dielectric constant and loss tangent in LiNbO3 crystals from 90 to 147GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1342–1344 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 396–402 (1902).
  5. R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Tamir and S. Zhang, “Resonant scattering by multilayered dielectric gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1607–1616 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. I. A. Avrutskii, G. A. Golubenko, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tischenko, “Light reflection from the surface of a corrugated waveguide,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 401–402 (1985).
  8. S. S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. S. Bagby, and M. G. Moharam, “Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1470–1474 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Experimental demonstration of resonant anomalies in diffraction from two-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Lett. 21, 549–551 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Sharon, S. Glasberg, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Metal-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 588–595 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. Rochon, A. Natansohn, C. L. Callender, and L. Robitaille, “Guided mode resonance filters using polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1008–1010 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. J. Stockermans and P.L. Rochon, “Narrow-band resonant grating waveguide filters constructed with azobenzene polymers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3714–3719 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Donval, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, G. Levy-Yurista, E. Jonsson, and A. A. Friesem, “Novel polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).
  14. A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, A. A. Friesem, H. G. Weber, H. Engel, and R. Steingueber, “Light modulation with resonant grating waveguide structures,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1564–1566 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. N. Dudovich, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Sharon, A. A. Friesem, and H. G. Weber, “Active semiconductor-based grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Donval, E. Toussaere, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Polarization insensitive electro-optic polymer modulator,” Appl. Phys. 87, 3258–3262 (2000).
  17. D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: Application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2917 (1982).
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

M. Lee, “Dielectric constant and loss tangent in LiNbO3 crystals from 90 to 147GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1342–1344 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Sharon, A. A. Friesem, and H. G. Weber, “Active semiconductor-based grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, G. Levy-Yurista, E. Jonsson, and A. A. Friesem, “Novel polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).

2000 (2)

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Polarization insensitive electro-optic polymer modulator,” Appl. Phys. 87, 3258–3262 (2000).

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (4)

P. Rochon, A. Natansohn, C. L. Callender, and L. Robitaille, “Guided mode resonance filters using polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1008–1010 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Sharon, S. Glasberg, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Metal-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 588–595 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Tamir and S. Zhang, “Resonant scattering by multilayered dielectric gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1607–1616 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

I. A. Avrutskii, G. A. Golubenko, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tischenko, “Light reflection from the surface of a corrugated waveguide,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 401–402 (1985).

1982 (1)

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: Application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2917 (1982).
[Crossref]

1902 (1)

R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 396–402 (1902).

Avrutskii, I. A.

I. A. Avrutskii, G. A. Golubenko, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tischenko, “Light reflection from the surface of a corrugated waveguide,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 401–402 (1985).

Bagby, J. S.

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Callender, C. L.

P. Rochon, A. Natansohn, C. L. Callender, and L. Robitaille, “Guided mode resonance filters using polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1008–1010 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Donval, A.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, G. Levy-Yurista, E. Jonsson, and A. A. Friesem, “Novel polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Polarization insensitive electro-optic polymer modulator,” Appl. Phys. 87, 3258–3262 (2000).

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Sharon, A. A. Friesem, and H. G. Weber, “Active semiconductor-based grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).
[Crossref]

Engel, H.

Erben, C.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friesem, A. A.

N. Dudovich, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Sharon, A. A. Friesem, and H. G. Weber, “Active semiconductor-based grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, G. Levy-Yurista, E. Jonsson, and A. A. Friesem, “Novel polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Sharon, S. Glasberg, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Metal-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 588–595 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, A. A. Friesem, H. G. Weber, H. Engel, and R. Steingueber, “Light modulation with resonant grating waveguide structures,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1564–1566 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gill, D. M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glasberg, S.

Golubenko, G. A.

I. A. Avrutskii, G. A. Golubenko, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tischenko, “Light reflection from the surface of a corrugated waveguide,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 401–402 (1985).

Gopalan, P.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heber, J. D.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hierle, R.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Polarization insensitive electro-optic polymer modulator,” Appl. Phys. 87, 3258–3262 (2000).

Jonsson, E.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, G. Levy-Yurista, E. Jonsson, and A. A. Friesem, “Novel polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).

Katz, H. E.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, “Dielectric constant and loss tangent in LiNbO3 crystals from 90 to 147GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1342–1344 (2001).
[Crossref]

Levy-Yurista, G.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, G. Levy-Yurista, E. Jonsson, and A. A. Friesem, “Novel polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).

N. Dudovich, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Sharon, A. A. Friesem, and H. G. Weber, “Active semiconductor-based grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).
[Crossref]

Magnusson, R.

McGee, D. J.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moharam, M. G.

Morris, G. M.

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, A. Natansohn, C. L. Callender, and L. Robitaille, “Guided mode resonance filters using polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1008–1010 (1997).
[Crossref]

Peng, S.

Petit, R.

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[Crossref]

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Robitaille, L.

P. Rochon, A. Natansohn, C. L. Callender, and L. Robitaille, “Guided mode resonance filters using polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1008–1010 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, A. Natansohn, C. L. Callender, and L. Robitaille, “Guided mode resonance filters using polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1008–1010 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rochon, P.L.

Rosenblatt, D.

Sanda, P. N.

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: Application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2917 (1982).
[Crossref]

Sharon, A.

N. Dudovich, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Sharon, A. A. Friesem, and H. G. Weber, “Active semiconductor-based grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Sharon, S. Glasberg, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Metal-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 588–595 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, A. A. Friesem, H. G. Weber, H. Engel, and R. Steingueber, “Light modulation with resonant grating waveguide structures,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1564–1566 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, P.

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: Application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2917 (1982).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Steingueber, R.

Stepleman, R. S.

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: Application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2917 (1982).
[Crossref]

Stockermans, R. J.

Streir, W. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sychugov, V. A.

I. A. Avrutskii, G. A. Golubenko, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tischenko, “Light reflection from the surface of a corrugated waveguide,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 401–402 (1985).

Tamir, T.

Tischenko, A. V.

I. A. Avrutskii, G. A. Golubenko, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tischenko, “Light reflection from the surface of a corrugated waveguide,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 401–402 (1985).

Toussaere, E.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, G. Levy-Yurista, E. Jonsson, and A. A. Friesem, “Novel polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Polarization insensitive electro-optic polymer modulator,” Appl. Phys. 87, 3258–3262 (2000).

Wang, S. S.

Weber, H. G.

N. Dudovich, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Sharon, A. A. Friesem, and H. G. Weber, “Active semiconductor-based grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, A. A. Friesem, H. G. Weber, H. Engel, and R. Steingueber, “Light modulation with resonant grating waveguide structures,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1564–1566 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 396–402 (1902).

Zhang, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

Zyss, J.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, G. Levy-Yurista, E. Jonsson, and A. A. Friesem, “Novel polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Polarization insensitive electro-optic polymer modulator,” Appl. Phys. 87, 3258–3262 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Polarization insensitive electro-optic polymer modulator,” Appl. Phys. 87, 3258–3262 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Rochon, A. Natansohn, C. L. Callender, and L. Robitaille, “Guided mode resonance filters using polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1008–1010 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Lee, “Dielectric constant and loss tangent in LiNbO3 crystals from 90 to 147GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1342–1344 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, G. Levy-Yurista, E. Jonsson, and A. A. Friesem, “Novel polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Sharon, A. A. Friesem, and H. G. Weber, “Active semiconductor-based grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1030–1039 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Philos. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, “On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum,” Philos. Mag. 4, 396–402 (1902).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Sheng, R. S. Stepleman, and P. N. Sanda, “Exact eigenfunctions for square-wave gratings: Application to diffraction and surface-plasmon calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 2907–2917 (1982).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Streir, “Low (sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 199–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298, 1401–1403 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. A. Avrutskii, G. A. Golubenko, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tischenko, “Light reflection from the surface of a corrugated waveguide,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 401–402 (1985).

Other (1)

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[Crossref]

Cited By

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Active polymer-based grating waveguide structure with an E-O polymer waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of the grating layer. Inserts showing enhanced images of the grating surface roughness.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental normalized reflection intensity as a function of wavelength, for a polymer-based GWS.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental normalized reflection intensity as a function of wavelength, for a polymer-based GWS. (a) Pulse duration of 0.1ms; (b) pulse duration of 1µs. Dashed curve-applied voltage; solid curve- detected reflection modulation at resonance wavelength.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n c k sin θ + mK = n w k cos ψ ,
Δ λ λ Δ n n w ,
Δ n = n w , o 3 r 23 Γ V 2 d ,
Δλ = λ n w , o 3 r 23 Γ 2 d V .

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