Abstract

We propose a novel optical quantizing and coding for ultrafast analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion using nonlinear optical switches based on Sagnac interferometer. The feasibility of a 3-bit A/D conversion at 10-Giga-sample-per-second (Gsps) is experimentally demonstrated. Multi-period transfer function of the Sagnac interferometer type nonlinear fiber-optic switch, which is a key to the quantizing and coding, is experimentally realized for the first time to the authors’ knowledge. The proposed optical quantizing and coding, combined with existing optical sampling techniques, will enable ultrafast photonic A/D conversion without high-speed electronics, potentially in the frequency region of well over a few hundred Gsps.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Nosaka, M. Nakamura, M. Ida, K. Kurishima, T. Shibata, M. Tokumitsu, and M. Muraguchi, �??A 24-Gsps 3-bit Nyquist ADC using InP HBTs for electronic dispersion compensation,�?? in Proceedings of International Microwave Symposium, (Fort Worth, Texas, 2004), TU5A-1, pp. 101-104
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Yamamoto, E. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, �??Ultrafast nonlinear optical loop mirror for demultiplexing 640Gbit/s TDM signals,�?? Electron. Lett. 34, 1013-1014 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, �??100Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,�?? Electron. Lett. 30, 1152-1553 (1994)
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, and M. Saruwatari, �??Error-free 500Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses,�?? Electron. Lett. 32, 833-834 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. J. Hiroishi, N. Kumano, R. Sugizaki, O. Aso, M. Tadakuma, T. Shibuta, N. Oyama, T. Yagi, and M. Sakano, �??Highly nonlinear DSF with low dispersion slope for wavelength converter,�?? in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (Yokohama,Japan, 2002), pp.492-493.
  12. J. Hiroishi, N. Kumano, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, R. Miyabe, S. Matsushita, H. Tobioka, S. Namiki, and T. Yagi, �??Dispersion controlled HNL-DSF with high γ of 25 W^-1km^-1 and band conversion experiment using this fiber,�?? in Proceedings of European Conference in Optical Communication, (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002), PD1.5.
  13. H. Tobioka, K. Igarashi, S. Takasaka, R. Miyabe, J. Hiroishi, R. Sugizaki, T. Yagi, O. Aso and S. Namiki, �??Low-noise ultra-fast fiber parametric wavelength converter for 160 GHz sub-picojoule picosecond pulse train using low dispersion slope highly-nonlinear fiber,�?? in Proceedings of European Conference in Optical Communication, (Rimini, Italy, 2003), We3.7.1.

ECOC 2002 (1)

J. Hiroishi, N. Kumano, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, R. Miyabe, S. Matsushita, H. Tobioka, S. Namiki, and T. Yagi, �??Dispersion controlled HNL-DSF with high γ of 25 W^-1km^-1 and band conversion experiment using this fiber,�?? in Proceedings of European Conference in Optical Communication, (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2002), PD1.5.

ECOC 2003 (1)

H. Tobioka, K. Igarashi, S. Takasaka, R. Miyabe, J. Hiroishi, R. Sugizaki, T. Yagi, O. Aso and S. Namiki, �??Low-noise ultra-fast fiber parametric wavelength converter for 160 GHz sub-picojoule picosecond pulse train using low dispersion slope highly-nonlinear fiber,�?? in Proceedings of European Conference in Optical Communication, (Rimini, Italy, 2003), We3.7.1.

ECOC 2004 (1)

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, S. Namiki, and K. Kitayama, �??A novel quantizing and coding for ultrafast all-optical A/D converter using nonlinear fiber-optic switches,�?? in Proceedings of European Conference in Optical Communication, (Stockholm, Sweden, 2004), Mo3.5.4, pp.46-47.

Electron. Lett. (3)

T. Yamamoto, E. Yoshida, M. Nakazawa, �??Ultrafast nonlinear optical loop mirror for demultiplexing 640Gbit/s TDM signals,�?? Electron. Lett. 34, 1013-1014 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Morioka, K. Mori, M. Saruwatari, �??100Gbit/s optical waveform measurement with 0.6 ps resolution optical sampling using subpicosecond supercontinuum pulses,�?? Electron. Lett. 30, 1152-1553 (1994)
[CrossRef]

T. Morioka, H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, T. Kitoh, and M. Saruwatari, �??Error-free 500Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexing using low-noise, low-jitter supercontinuum short pulses,�?? Electron. Lett. 32, 833-834 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. F. Taylor, �??An optical analog-to-digital converter- design and analysis.�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 210-216 (1979).
[CrossRef]

International Microwave Symposium 2004 (1)

H. Nosaka, M. Nakamura, M. Ida, K. Kurishima, T. Shibata, M. Tokumitsu, and M. Muraguchi, �??A 24-Gsps 3-bit Nyquist ADC using InP HBTs for electronic dispersion compensation,�?? in Proceedings of International Microwave Symposium, (Fort Worth, Texas, 2004), TU5A-1, pp. 101-104

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Select. Areas Commun. (1)

R. H. Walden, �??Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,�?? J. Select. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

OptoElectronics and Communications 2002 (1)

J. Hiroishi, N. Kumano, R. Sugizaki, O. Aso, M. Tadakuma, T. Shibuta, N. Oyama, T. Yagi, and M. Sakano, �??Highly nonlinear DSF with low dispersion slope for wavelength converter,�?? in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference, (Yokohama,Japan, 2002), pp.492-493.

Other (1)

Govind P. Agrawal, �??Fiber interferometer,�?? in Applications of nonlinear fiber optics: Edited by Paul L. Kelley, (Academic press, San Diego, 2001), Chap. 3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of all-optical encoder and quantizer in AD conversion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transfer functions and corresponding quantizing rule of Encoders 1, 2, and 3, (upper) and relation of input power of analog pulse to output bit pattern (Gray code) of the encoders (lower).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Configuration of the optical switch based on nonlinear Sagnac loop for encoder.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transfer function of the thresholders.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental results of the transfer functions of the encoders. The left column indicates the encoder outputs, and the right column indicates the thresholder outputs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reconstructed output digital signals based on the results shown in Fig. 6.

Equations (2)

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T = P { 1 cos ( ϕ XPM CW ϕ XPM CCW ) } 2
= P { 1 cos ( 2 γ ( P peak P ave ) L ) } 2 ,

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