Abstract

We have evaluated the ability of three commercially available deformable mirrors to compensate the aberrations of the eye using a model for aberrations developed by Thibos, Bradley and Hong. The mirrors evaluated were a 37 actuator membrane mirror and 19 actuator piezo mirror (OKO Technologies) and a 35 actuator bimorph mirror (AOptix Inc). For each mirror, Zernike polynomials and typical ocular aberrated wavefronts were fitted with the mirror modes measured using a Twyman-Green interferometer. The bimorph mirror showed the lowest root mean square error, although the 19 actuator piezo device showed promise if extended to more actuators. The methodology can be used to evaluate new deformable mirrors as they become available.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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2004 (1)

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Léna, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230, 225–238 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

2002 (3)

2000 (2)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2000).

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, “A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror,” Opt. Express 6, 175–185 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2000).

Artal, P.

Bierden, P.

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, “A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22, 427–433 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, “Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2329–2348 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Cheng, X.

Dainty, C.

Dainty, J. C.

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. C. Dainty, “A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror,” Opt. Express 6, 175–185 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Dalimier, K. M. Hampson, and J. C. Dainty , “Effects of adaptive optics on visual performance,” in Imaging and Vision, e. Fionn and D. Murtagh, ed., Proc. SPIE5823 (2005).

Dalimier, E.

E. Dalimier, K. M. Hampson, and J. C. Dainty , “Effects of adaptive optics on visual performance,” in Imaging and Vision, e. Fionn and D. Murtagh, ed., Proc. SPIE5823 (2005).

Diaz-Santana, L.

Doble, N.

Fernández, E. J.

Gargasson, J.-F. L.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Léna, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230, 225–238 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gasson, P.

Gendron, E.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Léna, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230, 225–238 (2004).
[Crossref]

Glanc, M.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Léna, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230, 225–238 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hampson, K. M.

E. Dalimier, K. M. Hampson, and J. C. Dainty , “Effects of adaptive optics on visual performance,” in Imaging and Vision, e. Fionn and D. Murtagh, ed., Proc. SPIE5823 (2005).

K. M. Hampson, “The higher-order aberrations of the human eye: relation to the pulse and effect on vision,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College, London (2004).

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, “Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2329–2348 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, “A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22, 427–433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Horsley, D. A.

D. A. Horsley, H. K. Park, S. P. Laut, and J. S. Werner , “Characterization for vision science applications of a bimorph deformable mirror using phase-shifting interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies XV, F. Manns, P. G. Sderberg, A. Ho, B. E. Stuck, and e. M. Belkin, eds., Proc. SPIE5688, 133–144 (2005).

Klyce, S. D.

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, “Zernike Polynomial Fitting Fails to Represent All Visually Significant Corneal Aberrations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676–4681 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lacombe, F.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Léna, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230, 225–238 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lafaille, D.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Léna, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230, 225–238 (2004).
[Crossref]

Laut, S. P.

D. A. Horsley, H. K. Park, S. P. Laut, and J. S. Werner , “Characterization for vision science applications of a bimorph deformable mirror using phase-shifting interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies XV, F. Manns, P. G. Sderberg, A. Ho, B. E. Stuck, and e. M. Belkin, eds., Proc. SPIE5688, 133–144 (2005).

Léna, P.

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Léna, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230, 225–238 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

Miller, D. T.

Munro, I.

Oliver, S.

Park, H. K.

D. A. Horsley, H. K. Park, S. P. Laut, and J. S. Werner , “Characterization for vision science applications of a bimorph deformable mirror using phase-shifting interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies XV, F. Manns, P. G. Sderberg, A. Ho, B. E. Stuck, and e. M. Belkin, eds., Proc. SPIE5688, 133–144 (2005).

Paterson, C.

Prieto, P. M.

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive optics in astronomy, 1st ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1999).
[Crossref]

Sarro, P. M.

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2000).

Singer, B.

Smolek, M. K.

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, “Zernike Polynomial Fitting Fails to Represent All Visually Significant Corneal Aberrations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676–4681 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, “A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22, 427–433 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, “Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2329–2348 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2000).

Torti, C.

Vargas-Martín, F.

Vdovin, G.

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2000).

Werner, J. S.

D. A. Horsley, H. K. Park, S. P. Laut, and J. S. Werner , “Characterization for vision science applications of a bimorph deformable mirror using phase-shifting interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies XV, F. Manns, P. G. Sderberg, A. Ho, B. E. Stuck, and e. M. Belkin, eds., Proc. SPIE5688, 133–144 (2005).

Williams, D. R.

Yoon, G. Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

M. K. Smolek and S. D. Klyce, “Zernike Polynomial Fitting Fails to Represent All Visually Significant Corneal Aberrations,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 44, 4676–4681 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Refract. Surg. (1)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, and R. Webb, “Standards for reporting optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18, 652–660 (2000).

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. (1)

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, “A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes,” Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22, 427–433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Glanc, E. Gendron, F. Lacombe, D. Lafaille, J.-F. L. Gargasson, and P. Léna, “Towards wide-field retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” Opt. Commun. 230, 225–238 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

F. Roddier, Adaptive optics in astronomy, 1st ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1999).
[Crossref]

D. A. Horsley, H. K. Park, S. P. Laut, and J. S. Werner , “Characterization for vision science applications of a bimorph deformable mirror using phase-shifting interferometry,” in Ophthalmic Technologies XV, F. Manns, P. G. Sderberg, A. Ho, B. E. Stuck, and e. M. Belkin, eds., Proc. SPIE5688, 133–144 (2005).

K. M. Hampson, “The higher-order aberrations of the human eye: relation to the pulse and effect on vision,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College, London (2004).

E. Dalimier, K. M. Hampson, and J. C. Dainty , “Effects of adaptive optics on visual performance,” in Imaging and Vision, e. Fionn and D. Murtagh, ed., Proc. SPIE5823 (2005).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Actuators layout for the three mirrors considered: the 37ch OKO MMDM, the 19ch OKO, and the 35ch Bimorph. The gray area represents the optical pupil typically used. It is defined as such by the manufacturer for the 19 actuator OKO and the 35 actuator AOptix mirrors, but set by the user for the 37 actuator OKO mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the 37ch OKO mirror actuation and examples of actuator response.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the 19ch OKO mirror actuation and examples of actuator response.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement of hysteresis through the ramping of one actuator.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic of the 35ch AOptix mirror actuation and examples of actuator response.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the Zernike generation for the three mirrors in terms of pv signed wavefront produced. The first 21 polynomials are represented (piston, tip and tilt were removed).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of the Zernike generation for the three mirrors: (a) in terms of maximum signed wavefront rms and (b) in terms of residual rms error.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Residual wavefront rms error after fitting with the three mirrors over a 6 mm pupil. Piston, tip and tilt terms were removed

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Residual rms wavefront error after fitting with the three mirrors. The results were averaged from calculations on the same initial wavefronts as in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of residual rms obtained with an open-loop correction and a closedloop correction with the 37 actuator OKO MMDM

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Closed-loop correction of a human eye with the AOptix mirror (pupil size for measurement: 4.8 mm).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M = U M V T
Φ M = U U T Φ
c = M + Φ = V W 1 U T Φ
Z m = c lim c max U U T Z
c max = max ( abs ( M + Z ) )
Φ M = U W V T f ( V W 1 U T Φ )
f ( c i ) = { c if c lim c i c lim c lim × c i abs ( c i ) if c i < c lim or c i > c lim

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