Abstract

We have devised an ultra-small multi-channel drop filter based on a two-port resonant tunneling system in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with a triangular air-hole lattice. This filter does not require careful consideration of the interference process to achieve a high dropping efficiency. First we develop three-port systems based on a two-port resonant tunneling filter. Next we devise a multi-port channel drop filter by cascading these three-port systems. In this paper, we demonstrate a ten-channel drop filter with an 18 µm device size by 2D-FDTD calculation, and a three-port resonant tunneling filter with 65± 20 % dropping efficiency by experiment.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and H-Y. Ryu, �??Waveguides, resonators and their coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,�?? Opt. Express 12, 1551-1561 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1551">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1551</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, T. Tsuchizawa, and T. Watanabe,�?? Resonant tunneling wavelength filters with high Q and high transmittance based on photonic crystal slabs,�?? in Proceedings of 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), 214-215.
  3. G-H Kim, Y-H Lee, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, �??Coupling of small, low-loss hexapole mode with photonic crystal slab waveguide mode,�?? Opt. Express 26, 6624-6631 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-26-6624">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-26-6624</a>
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, �??Channel drop tunneling through localized states,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960-963 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, �??Photonic devices based on In-plane hetero photonic crystals,�?? Science 300, 1537 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Noda, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and T. Asano, �??In-plane hetero photonic crystals,�?? in technical digest of inter national symposium of photonic and electromagnetic crystal structure V (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), p. 87
  7. H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, and S. Noda, �??In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, �??Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,�?? Opt. Express 13, 2678-2687 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-7-2678">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-7-2678</a>
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljacic, �??High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, �??Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Shinya, M. Notomi, and E. Kuramochi, �??Single-mode transmission in commensurate width-varied line-defect SOI photonic crystal waveguides,�?? in Photonic Crystal Materials and Devices, A. Alibi and A. Scherer and S. Y. Lin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5000, 125-135 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, �??Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of SOI photonic crystal slabs,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736-742 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y Akahane, Y Tanaka, and S. Noda, �??Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004)
    [CrossRef]

Annual Meeting of IEEE LEOS (1)

S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, T. Tsuchizawa, and T. Watanabe,�?? Resonant tunneling wavelength filters with high Q and high transmittance based on photonic crystal slabs,�?? in Proceedings of 16th Annual Meeting of IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electronics Engineers, New York, 2003), 214-215.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Takano, Y. Akahane, T. Asano, and S. Noda, �??In-plane-type channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2226-2228 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, and M. Soljacic, �??High-contrast all-optical bistable switching in photonic crystal microcavities,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2739-2741 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y Akahane, Y Tanaka, and S. Noda, �??Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, �??Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of SOI photonic crystal slabs,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 736-742 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, �??Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, �??Channel drop tunneling through localized states,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 960-963 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Shinya, M. Notomi, and E. Kuramochi, �??Single-mode transmission in commensurate width-varied line-defect SOI photonic crystal waveguides,�?? in Photonic Crystal Materials and Devices, A. Alibi and A. Scherer and S. Y. Lin, eds., Proc. SPIE 5000, 125-135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, �??Photonic devices based on In-plane hetero photonic crystals,�?? Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Noda, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and T. Asano, �??In-plane hetero photonic crystals,�?? in technical digest of inter national symposium of photonic and electromagnetic crystal structure V (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), p. 87

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Three-port resonant tunneling filter. (a), (b), (c) are schematic diagrams of three kinds of three-port resonant tunneling filters. P1, P2, P3 and P4 are input, through, drop, and additional waveguides, respectively. Resonance modes are shown simply by a circle and four arrows.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Three-port resonant tunneling filter. (a) Width-tuned waveguide. (b) Four-point defect resonator with a width of Wc=W0. (c) Schematic diagram of the three-port resonant tunneling filter. P1, P2, P3, and P4 are width-tuned waveguides with widths of W0, 0.95W0, W0, 0.95W0, respectively. The brackets indicate the waveguide boundaries. (d) The dotted lines are the transmission spectra of the width-tuned waveguides. The solid lines are the output signals of the three-port resonant tunneling filter at P2 and P3. (e) Magnetic field profile (Hz) in three-port resonant tunneling filter when the frequency is resonant. (f) Magnetic field profile when the frequency is in the common band of P1 and P2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Resonator position dependence of the dropping efficiency of the three-port resonant tunneling filter. P1, P2, P3 and P4 are width-tuned WGs with widths of W0, 0.90W0, W0, 0.90W0, respectively. The resonator is a three-point-defect cavity with a width of W0. The symbols O and × indicate conditions of high and low transmittance, respectively. Δ is the distance from the WG-boundary to the center of the resonator in the x-direction. (b) Four coupling conditions. The circles indicate coupling points.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental result for three-port resonant tunneling filter. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of the fabricated filter structure on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. The thicknesses of the Si-core and the SiO2 cladding are about 200 nm and 3 µm, respectively. The hole diameter is about 210 nm and a=420 nm. P1, P2, P3 and P4 are width-tuned waveguides with widths of W0, 0.90W0, W0, 0.90W0, respectively. The brackets indicate waveguide boundaries. The resonator is a two-point defect cavity with a width of W0. (b) Transmission spectra at P2 and P3. (c) Transmission spectra at P3 and reference (W=W0). The estimated Q factor is about 5000 and the transmittance is 65±20%.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Three-port resonant tunneling filter. (a) Schematic diagram of the three-port resonant tunneling filter. P1, P2, P3, and P4 are width-tuned waveguides with widths of W0, 0.95W0, W0, 0.95W0, respectively. The brackets indicate the waveguide boundaries. (b) The dotted lines are the transmission spectra of the width-tuned waveguides. The solid lines are the output signals of the three-port resonant tunneling filter at P2 and P3. (c) Magnetic field profile (Hz) in three-port resonant tunneling filter when the frequency is resonant. (d) Magnetic field profile when the frequency is in the common band of P1 and P2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Design of multi-channel drop filter. (a) Structure of two-channel-drop filter. WG1, WG2 and WG3 are three kinds of width-tuned WGs and R1 and R2 are two different resonators. (b) and (c) are equivalent filters for resonant frequencies of R1 and R2, respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Structure of ten-channel-drop filter composed of twelve width-tuned WGs (WG1 ~WG12) and ten three-point defect resonators (R1~R10). The waveguides and resonators are in sequence by subscript number from the input to the through port. The widths of WG1~WG12 are 1.00, 0.99, 0.98, 0.97, 0.96, 0.95, 0.94, 0.93, 0.92, 0.91, 0.90, 0.89 × W0, respectively. The widths of the R1~R10 are tuned by shifting the four holes on either side of the core to increase or reduce the core width, and their values are 1.09, 1.07, 1.05, 1.03, 1.01, 0.99, 0.97, 0.95, 0.933, 0.915×W0, respectively. The device size (L) is 18 µm when a=400 nm. (b) Calculated transmission spectra of ten-channel-drop filter. All the transmittance values are over 80% and the crosstalk between drop ports is less than -25 dB. This filter can function in the C-band when a=400 nm. (c) Dropping efficiencies and Q factors at each port

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