Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a novel grating which only produces reflection with mode conversion in a two-mode waveguide. That characteristic can improve the performance of optical devices that currently use tilted Bragg gratings to provide the mode conversion. Tilted Bragg gratings produce also reflections without mode conversion which increases noise and crosstalk of the optical device.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. S. Kewitsch, G. A. Rakuljic, P. A Willems, and A. Yariv, “All-fiber zero-insertion-loss add-drop filter for wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 23, 106 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. J. Bruce, and J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of Tech. Dig. Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,1998), pp. 102–104.
  3. D.F Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambariam, “Ion-exchanged Waveguide Add/Drop Filter,” Electron Lett. 37, 829–831, (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  4. D F. Geraghty, J. M Castro, B West, and Seppo Honkanen,“All-Optical Packet Header Recognition Integrated Optic Chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Arizona, 2003), pp 752–753.
  5. C. Riziotis and M. N. Zervas, “Design considerations in optical add/drop multiplexers based on grating-assisted null couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 92–104 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B West, and Seppo Honkanen, “Fabrication and Comprehensive Modeling of Ion-Exchanged Bragg Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6166–6173 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Aslund, J. Canning, L. Poladian, C. Martijn de Sterke, and A. Judge, “Antisymmetric grating coupler: Experimental results,” Appl. Opt. 42, pp.6578–6583 (2003)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic and J. D. Love, “Planar waveguide add/drop wavelength filters based on segmented gratings,” Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. 37, 163–165 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, “Symmetry-selecting gratings and their applications”, in Proceedings of 5 th International Conference on Transparent Optical networks, M. Marciniak, ed. (IEEE, Warsaw, Poland, 2003) pp. 196–199.
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Castro, A. Sato, and D. F. Geraghty, “Waveguide mode conversion using anti-symmetric gratings,” OFC Conference, California, March 6–11, 2005.
  11. T. Erdogan and J.E Sipe, “Tilted fiber phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, pp. 296–313, February (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1999).
  13. C. Greiner, T. W. Mossberg, and D. Iazikov, “Bandpass engineering of lithographically scribed channel-waveguide Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 29, 806 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. LigthSmyth Technologies,“Channel Waveguide Gratings,” http://www.lightsmyth.com
  15. William K. Burns and Fenner Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (1980)
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica-on-silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic and J. D. Love, “Planar waveguide add/drop wavelength filters based on segmented gratings,” Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. 37, 163–165 (2003)
[CrossRef]

M. Aslund, J. Canning, L. Poladian, C. Martijn de Sterke, and A. Judge, “Antisymmetric grating coupler: Experimental results,” Appl. Opt. 42, pp.6578–6583 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

D.F Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambariam, “Ion-exchanged Waveguide Add/Drop Filter,” Electron Lett. 37, 829–831, (2001)
[CrossRef]

C. Riziotis and M. N. Zervas, “Design considerations in optical add/drop multiplexers based on grating-assisted null couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 92–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica-on-silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

William K. Burns and Fenner Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Adar, R.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica-on-silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aslund, M.

Bruce, A. J.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. J. Bruce, and J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of Tech. Dig. Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,1998), pp. 102–104.

Burns, William K.

William K. Burns and Fenner Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Castro, J. M

D F. Geraghty, J. M Castro, B West, and Seppo Honkanen,“All-Optical Packet Header Recognition Integrated Optic Chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Arizona, 2003), pp 752–753.

Castro, J. M.

J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B West, and Seppo Honkanen, “Fabrication and Comprehensive Modeling of Ion-Exchanged Bragg Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6166–6173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Castro, A. Sato, and D. F. Geraghty, “Waveguide mode conversion using anti-symmetric gratings,” OFC Conference, California, March 6–11, 2005.

Demarco, J.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. J. Bruce, and J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of Tech. Dig. Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,1998), pp. 102–104.

Erdogan, T.

Geraghty, D F.

D F. Geraghty, J. M Castro, B West, and Seppo Honkanen,“All-Optical Packet Header Recognition Integrated Optic Chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Arizona, 2003), pp 752–753.

Geraghty, D. F.

J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B West, and Seppo Honkanen, “Fabrication and Comprehensive Modeling of Ion-Exchanged Bragg Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6166–6173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Castro, A. Sato, and D. F. Geraghty, “Waveguide mode conversion using anti-symmetric gratings,” OFC Conference, California, March 6–11, 2005.

Geraghty, D.F

D.F Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambariam, “Ion-exchanged Waveguide Add/Drop Filter,” Electron Lett. 37, 829–831, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Greiner, C.

Henry, C. H.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica-on-silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. J. Bruce, and J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of Tech. Dig. Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,1998), pp. 102–104.

Honkanen, S.

D.F Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambariam, “Ion-exchanged Waveguide Add/Drop Filter,” Electron Lett. 37, 829–831, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, Seppo

J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B West, and Seppo Honkanen, “Fabrication and Comprehensive Modeling of Ion-Exchanged Bragg Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6166–6173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D F. Geraghty, J. M Castro, B West, and Seppo Honkanen,“All-Optical Packet Header Recognition Integrated Optic Chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Arizona, 2003), pp 752–753.

Iazikov, D.

Judge, A.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1999).

Kazarinov, R. F.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica-on-silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kewitsch, A. S.

Kistler, R. H.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica-on-silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic and J. D. Love, “Planar waveguide add/drop wavelength filters based on segmented gratings,” Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. 37, 163–165 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. J. Bruce, and J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of Tech. Dig. Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,1998), pp. 102–104.

Marciniak, M.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, “Symmetry-selecting gratings and their applications”, in Proceedings of 5 th International Conference on Transparent Optical networks, M. Marciniak, ed. (IEEE, Warsaw, Poland, 2003) pp. 196–199.
[CrossRef]

Martijn de Sterke, C.

Milbrodt, M. A.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. J. Bruce, and J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of Tech. Dig. Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,1998), pp. 102–104.

Milton, Fenner

William K. Burns and Fenner Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Morrell, M. M.

D.F Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambariam, “Ion-exchanged Waveguide Add/Drop Filter,” Electron Lett. 37, 829–831, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

Peyghambariam, N.

D.F Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambariam, “Ion-exchanged Waveguide Add/Drop Filter,” Electron Lett. 37, 829–831, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

Provenzano, D.

D.F Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambariam, “Ion-exchanged Waveguide Add/Drop Filter,” Electron Lett. 37, 829–831, (2001)
[CrossRef]

Rakuljic, G. A.

Riziotis, C.

C. Riziotis and M. N. Zervas, “Design considerations in optical add/drop multiplexers based on grating-assisted null couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 92–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sato, A.

J. M. Castro, A. Sato, and D. F. Geraghty, “Waveguide mode conversion using anti-symmetric gratings,” OFC Conference, California, March 6–11, 2005.

Sipe, J.E

Strasser, T. A.

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. J. Bruce, and J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of Tech. Dig. Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,1998), pp. 102–104.

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic and J. D. Love, “Planar waveguide add/drop wavelength filters based on segmented gratings,” Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. 37, 163–165 (2003)
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, “Symmetry-selecting gratings and their applications”, in Proceedings of 5 th International Conference on Transparent Optical networks, M. Marciniak, ed. (IEEE, Warsaw, Poland, 2003) pp. 196–199.
[CrossRef]

West, B

J. M. Castro, D. F. Geraghty, B West, and Seppo Honkanen, “Fabrication and Comprehensive Modeling of Ion-Exchanged Bragg Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6166–6173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D F. Geraghty, J. M Castro, B West, and Seppo Honkanen,“All-Optical Packet Header Recognition Integrated Optic Chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Arizona, 2003), pp 752–753.

Willems, P. A

Yariv, A.

D.F Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambariam, “Ion-exchanged Waveguide Add/Drop Filter,” Electron Lett. 37, 829–831, (2001)
[CrossRef]

A. S. Kewitsch, G. A. Rakuljic, P. A Willems, and A. Yariv, “All-fiber zero-insertion-loss add-drop filter for wavelength-division multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 23, 106 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

C. Riziotis and M. N. Zervas, “Design considerations in optical add/drop multiplexers based on grating-assisted null couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 92–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, “Polarization independent narrow band Bragg reflection gratings made with silica-on-silicon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron Lett. (1)

D.F Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, and N. Peyghambariam, “Ion-exchanged Waveguide Add/Drop Filter,” Electron Lett. 37, 829–831, (2001)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. Riziotis and M. N. Zervas, “Design considerations in optical add/drop multiplexers based on grating-assisted null couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 92–104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

William K. Burns and Fenner Milton, “An Analytic Solution for Mode Coupling in Optical Waveguide branches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 446 (1980)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. (1)

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic and J. D. Love, “Planar waveguide add/drop wavelength filters based on segmented gratings,” Microw. Opt. Techn. Lett. 37, 163–165 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (6)

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, “Symmetry-selecting gratings and their applications”, in Proceedings of 5 th International Conference on Transparent Optical networks, M. Marciniak, ed. (IEEE, Warsaw, Poland, 2003) pp. 196–199.
[CrossRef]

J. M. Castro, A. Sato, and D. F. Geraghty, “Waveguide mode conversion using anti-symmetric gratings,” OFC Conference, California, March 6–11, 2005.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings, (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1999).

LigthSmyth Technologies,“Channel Waveguide Gratings,” http://www.lightsmyth.com

C. K. Madsen, T. A. Strasser, M. A. Milbrodt, C. H. Henry, A. J. Bruce, and J. Demarco, “Planar waveguide add/drop filter employing a mode converting grating in an adiabatic coupler,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of Tech. Dig. Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.,1998), pp. 102–104.

D F. Geraghty, J. M Castro, B West, and Seppo Honkanen,“All-Optical Packet Header Recognition Integrated Optic Chip,” in Proceedings of IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Arizona, 2003), pp 752–753.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the anti-symmetric waveguide grating (a) and a waveguide with a tilted Bragg grating (b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of a TBG (dashed line) to the anti-symmetric Bragg Grating (solid line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematics of the fabricated device using the anti-symmetric grating. Measured mode profiles of the two-mode waveguide are also shown.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Set up for sample characterization.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated and measured TE reflection spectrum of the anti-symmetric waveguide Bragg grating.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated and measured TM reflection spectrum of the anti-symmetric waveguide Bragg grating.

Equations (2)

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η ab = e a * ( x , y ) ζ ( x , y ) e b ( x , y ) dxdy e a * ( x , y ) e a ( x , y ) dxdy e b * ( x , y ) e b ( x , y ) dxdy
λ oe = Λ ( n e + n o )

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