Abstract

Silica particles were partially coated with silver, and a suitable chromophore, such that they could be trapped within an optical tweezers system and simultaneously be excited to emit a surface–enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) spectrum. A standard 1064 nm TEM00 mode laser was used to trap the bead whilst a frequency doubling crystal inserted into the beam gave several microwatts of 532 nm co-linear light to excite the SERRS emission. The configuration has clear applications in providing apparatus that can manipulate a particle whilst simultaneously obtaining surface sensitive sensory information.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11, 288–290 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787–2809 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Li, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of single optically trapped biological cells,” Opt. Lett. 27, 249–251 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksör, J. Enger, M. Käll, and D. Hanstorp, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593–600 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. J. Pelletier, “Analytical applications in Raman spectroscopy,” Blackwell Science Ltd, (1999).
  7. K. Faulds, W. E. Smith, and D. Graham, “Evaluation of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for quantitative DNA analysis,” Anal. Chem. 76, 412–417 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “An approach to single molecule detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS): a study using rhodamine 6G on colloidal silver,” App. Spectrosc. 49, 780–784 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping of metallic Rayleigh particles,” Opt. Lett. 19, 13, 930–932 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Sato, Y. Harada, and Y. Waseda, “Optical trapping of microscopic metal particles,” Opt. Lett. 19, 22, 1807–1809 (1994)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Furukawa and I. Yamaguchi, “Optical trapping of metallic particles by a fixed Gaussian beam,” Opt. Lett. 23, 3, 216–218 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 7, 807–809 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Jordan, G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, G. Sinclair, W. E. Smith, J. M. Cooper, and M. Padgett, “3D optical trapping of partially silvered microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2488–2490 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, “A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS,” Langmuir 18, 2959–2961 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Spectroscopic properties of molecules interacting with small dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3, 1139–1152 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Ruppin, “Decay of an excited molecule near a small metal sphere,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1681–1684 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (5)

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksör, J. Enger, M. Käll, and D. Hanstorp, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Faulds, W. E. Smith, and D. Graham, “Evaluation of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for quantitative DNA analysis,” Anal. Chem. 76, 412–417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Jordan, G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, G. Sinclair, W. E. Smith, J. M. Cooper, and M. Padgett, “3D optical trapping of partially silvered microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2488–2490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, “A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS,” Langmuir 18, 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Li, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy of single optically trapped biological cells,” Opt. Lett. 27, 249–251 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “An approach to single molecule detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS): a study using rhodamine 6G on colloidal silver,” App. Spectrosc. 49, 780–784 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1992 (1)

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 7, 807–809 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

R. Ruppin, “Decay of an excited molecule near a small metal sphere,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1681–1684 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Spectroscopic properties of molecules interacting with small dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3, 1139–1152 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Batchelder, D. N.

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, “A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS,” Langmuir 18, 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping of metallic Rayleigh particles,” Opt. Lett. 19, 13, 930–932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

Cooper, J. M.

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

P. Jordan, G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, G. Sinclair, W. E. Smith, J. M. Cooper, and M. Padgett, “3D optical trapping of partially silvered microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2488–2490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “An approach to single molecule detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS): a study using rhodamine 6G on colloidal silver,” App. Spectrosc. 49, 780–784 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dinno, M. A.

Docherty, F. T.

P. Jordan, G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, G. Sinclair, W. E. Smith, J. M. Cooper, and M. Padgett, “3D optical trapping of partially silvered microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2488–2490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enger, J.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksör, J. Enger, M. Käll, and D. Hanstorp, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewen Smith, W.

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Faulds, K.

K. Faulds, W. E. Smith, and D. Graham, “Evaluation of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for quantitative DNA analysis,” Anal. Chem. 76, 412–417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “An approach to single molecule detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS): a study using rhodamine 6G on colloidal silver,” App. Spectrosc. 49, 780–784 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, H.

Gersten, J.

J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Spectroscopic properties of molecules interacting with small dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3, 1139–1152 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Goksör, M.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksör, J. Enger, M. Käll, and D. Hanstorp, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, D.

K. Faulds, W. E. Smith, and D. Graham, “Evaluation of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for quantitative DNA analysis,” Anal. Chem. 76, 412–417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Hanstorp, D.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksör, J. Enger, M. Käll, and D. Hanstorp, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harada, Y.

Jordan, P.

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

P. Jordan, G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, G. Sinclair, W. E. Smith, J. M. Cooper, and M. Padgett, “3D optical trapping of partially silvered microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2488–2490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käll, M.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksör, J. Enger, M. Käll, and D. Hanstorp, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitamura, N.

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 7, 807–809 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “An approach to single molecule detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS): a study using rhodamine 6G on colloidal silver,” App. Spectrosc. 49, 780–784 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koshioka, M.

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 7, 807–809 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Logg, K.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksör, J. Enger, M. Käll, and D. Hanstorp, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNay, G.

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

P. Jordan, G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, G. Sinclair, W. E. Smith, J. M. Cooper, and M. Padgett, “3D optical trapping of partially silvered microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2488–2490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 7, 807–809 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Monaghan, P. B.

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Neuman, K. C.

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nitzan, A.

J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Spectroscopic properties of molecules interacting with small dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3, 1139–1152 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

P. Jordan, G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, G. Sinclair, W. E. Smith, J. M. Cooper, and M. Padgett, “3D optical trapping of partially silvered microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2488–2490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelletier, M. J.

M. J. Pelletier, “Analytical applications in Raman spectroscopy,” Blackwell Science Ltd, (1999).

Ramser, K.

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksör, J. Enger, M. Käll, and D. Hanstorp, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, “Decay of an excited molecule near a small metal sphere,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1681–1684 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, “A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS,” Langmuir 18, 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 7, 807–809 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Sinclair, G.

P. Jordan, G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, G. Sinclair, W. E. Smith, J. M. Cooper, and M. Padgett, “3D optical trapping of partially silvered microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2488–2490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, “A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS,” Langmuir 18, 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. E.

P. Jordan, G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, G. Sinclair, W. E. Smith, J. M. Cooper, and M. Padgett, “3D optical trapping of partially silvered microparticles,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2488–2490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Faulds, W. E. Smith, and D. Graham, “Evaluation of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for quantitative DNA analysis,” Anal. Chem. 76, 412–417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping of metallic Rayleigh particles,” Opt. Lett. 19, 13, 930–932 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. J.

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, “A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS,” Langmuir 18, 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “An approach to single molecule detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS): a study using rhodamine 6G on colloidal silver,” App. Spectrosc. 49, 780–784 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Waseda, Y.

Xie, C.

Yamaguchi, I.

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. Faulds, W. E. Smith, and D. Graham, “Evaluation of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for quantitative DNA analysis,” Anal. Chem. 76, 412–417 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

G. McNay, F. T. Docherty, D. Graham, W. Ewen Smith, P. Jordan, M. Padgett, J. Leach, G. Sinclair, P. B. Monaghan, and J. M. Cooper, “Visual observation of SERRS from single silver coated silica microparticles within optical tweezers,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43, 19, 2512–2514 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. (1)

K. Svoboda and S. M. Block, “Biological applications of optical forces,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 23, 247–285 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

App. Spectrosc. (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “An approach to single molecule detection using surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS): a study using rhodamine 6G on colloidal silver,” App. Spectrosc. 49, 780–784 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Sasaki, M. Koshioka, H. Misawa, and N. Kitamura, “Optical trapping of a metal particle and a water droplet by a scanning laser beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 7, 807–809 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Ramser, K. Logg, M. Goksör, J. Enger, M. Käll, and D. Hanstorp, “Resonance Raman spectroscopy of optically trapped functional erythrocytes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 593–600 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Spectroscopic properties of molecules interacting with small dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 3, 1139–1152 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Ruppin, “Decay of an excited molecule near a small metal sphere,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1681–1684 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

Y. Saito, J. J. Wang, D. A. Smith, and D. N. Batchelder, “A simple chemical method for the preparation of silver surfaces for efficient SERS,” Langmuir 18, 2959–2961 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. C. Neuman and S. M. Block, “Optical trapping,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2787–2809 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. J. Pelletier, “Analytical applications in Raman spectroscopy,” Blackwell Science Ltd, (1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of experimental set-up.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photo-degradation of several different individually trapped, silver and dye-coated particles using 436 mW of 1064 nm laser light which, after transmission through the frequency doubling crystal, introduced 10.9 µW of 532 nm excitation light in the trapping plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the spectra recorded from the silver and dye coated micro-particle in the optical tweezers to the same dye adsorbed onto a silver colloid and recorded using a dedicated Raman system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The spectra of a SERRS active bead being trapped, released and re-trapped. The particle is only active when trapped; when it is not trapped the intensity falls down to noise levels.

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