Abstract

We observe distinct variations between the DGD temporal statistics for different channels in a field installed system. This phenomenon is confirmed with statistical analysis, using a model in which DGD dynamics are due only to a finite number of active points along the link.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P.A. Andrekson, “Long-term Measurement of PMD and Polarization Drift in Installed Fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941–951, (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. C.T. Allen, P.K. Kondamuri, D.L. Richards, and D.C. Hague, “Measured Temporal and Spectral PMD Characteristics and Their Implication for Network-Level Mitigation Approaches,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 79–86, (2003)
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Evidence for Parametric Dependence of PMD on Temperature in Installed 0.05 ps/km1/2 Fiber,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, 4, Paper 9.3.2.;
  4. M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Polarization-Mode Dispersion of Installed Recent Vintage Fiber as a Parametric Function of Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 209–211, (2004)
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Field PMD Measurements through a Commercial, Raman-Amplified ULH Transmission System,” in Proc. LEOS PMD Summer Topical Meeting2003, 15–16, Paper MB3.3
  6. M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Physical Mechanism for Polarization Mode Dispersion Temporal Dynamics,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 18, No. 3, 4–6, (2004)
  7. M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “Technique for In-Situ Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 224–225, Paper TuK1.;
  8. M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “In-Service Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Correlation to Bit-Error Rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 572–574, (2003)
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Birk, L. Raddatz, D. A. Fishman, P. Magill, and S. Woodward, “Field trial of end-to-end OC-768 transmission using 9 WDM channels over 1000 km of installed fiber,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 290–291, Paper TuS4.
  10. C. Antonelli and A. Mecozzi, “Statistics of the DGD in PMD emulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1840–1842, (2004)
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Channel-to-Channel Variation of Non-Maxwellian Statistics of DGD in a Field Installed System,” in Proc. ECOC 2004, 3, 306–309, Paper We1.4.1.
  12. M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, C. Antonelli, and A. Mecozzi, “Outage probability for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345–347, (2005)
    [Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, C. Antonelli, and A. Mecozzi, “Outage probability for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345–347, (2005)
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

C. Antonelli and A. Mecozzi, “Statistics of the DGD in PMD emulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1840–1842, (2004)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Polarization-Mode Dispersion of Installed Recent Vintage Fiber as a Parametric Function of Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 209–211, (2004)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Physical Mechanism for Polarization Mode Dispersion Temporal Dynamics,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 18, No. 3, 4–6, (2004)

2003 (2)

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “In-Service Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Correlation to Bit-Error Rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 572–574, (2003)
[Crossref]

C.T. Allen, P.K. Kondamuri, D.L. Richards, and D.C. Hague, “Measured Temporal and Spectral PMD Characteristics and Their Implication for Network-Level Mitigation Approaches,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 79–86, (2003)
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P.A. Andrekson, “Long-term Measurement of PMD and Polarization Drift in Installed Fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941–951, (2000).
[Crossref]

Allen, C.T.

C.T. Allen, P.K. Kondamuri, D.L. Richards, and D.C. Hague, “Measured Temporal and Spectral PMD Characteristics and Their Implication for Network-Level Mitigation Approaches,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 79–86, (2003)
[Crossref]

Andrekson, P.A.

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P.A. Andrekson, “Long-term Measurement of PMD and Polarization Drift in Installed Fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941–951, (2000).
[Crossref]

Antonelli, C.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, C. Antonelli, and A. Mecozzi, “Outage probability for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345–347, (2005)
[Crossref]

C. Antonelli and A. Mecozzi, “Statistics of the DGD in PMD emulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1840–1842, (2004)
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

M. Birk, L. Raddatz, D. A. Fishman, P. Magill, and S. Woodward, “Field trial of end-to-end OC-768 transmission using 9 WDM channels over 1000 km of installed fiber,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 290–291, Paper TuS4.

Boroditsky, M.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, C. Antonelli, and A. Mecozzi, “Outage probability for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345–347, (2005)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Physical Mechanism for Polarization Mode Dispersion Temporal Dynamics,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 18, No. 3, 4–6, (2004)

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “In-Service Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Correlation to Bit-Error Rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 572–574, (2003)
[Crossref]

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “Technique for In-Situ Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 224–225, Paper TuK1.;

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Field PMD Measurements through a Commercial, Raman-Amplified ULH Transmission System,” in Proc. LEOS PMD Summer Topical Meeting2003, 15–16, Paper MB3.3

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Channel-to-Channel Variation of Non-Maxwellian Statistics of DGD in a Field Installed System,” in Proc. ECOC 2004, 3, 306–309, Paper We1.4.1.

Brentel, J.

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P.A. Andrekson, “Long-term Measurement of PMD and Polarization Drift in Installed Fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941–951, (2000).
[Crossref]

Brodsky, M.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, C. Antonelli, and A. Mecozzi, “Outage probability for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345–347, (2005)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Polarization-Mode Dispersion of Installed Recent Vintage Fiber as a Parametric Function of Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 209–211, (2004)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Physical Mechanism for Polarization Mode Dispersion Temporal Dynamics,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 18, No. 3, 4–6, (2004)

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “In-Service Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Correlation to Bit-Error Rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 572–574, (2003)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Field PMD Measurements through a Commercial, Raman-Amplified ULH Transmission System,” in Proc. LEOS PMD Summer Topical Meeting2003, 15–16, Paper MB3.3

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “Technique for In-Situ Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 224–225, Paper TuK1.;

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Evidence for Parametric Dependence of PMD on Temperature in Installed 0.05 ps/km1/2 Fiber,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, 4, Paper 9.3.2.;

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Channel-to-Channel Variation of Non-Maxwellian Statistics of DGD in a Field Installed System,” in Proc. ECOC 2004, 3, 306–309, Paper We1.4.1.

Fishman, D. A.

M. Birk, L. Raddatz, D. A. Fishman, P. Magill, and S. Woodward, “Field trial of end-to-end OC-768 transmission using 9 WDM channels over 1000 km of installed fiber,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 290–291, Paper TuS4.

Frigo, N.J.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, C. Antonelli, and A. Mecozzi, “Outage probability for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345–347, (2005)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Polarization-Mode Dispersion of Installed Recent Vintage Fiber as a Parametric Function of Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 209–211, (2004)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Physical Mechanism for Polarization Mode Dispersion Temporal Dynamics,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 18, No. 3, 4–6, (2004)

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “In-Service Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Correlation to Bit-Error Rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 572–574, (2003)
[Crossref]

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “Technique for In-Situ Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 224–225, Paper TuK1.;

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Evidence for Parametric Dependence of PMD on Temperature in Installed 0.05 ps/km1/2 Fiber,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, 4, Paper 9.3.2.;

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Field PMD Measurements through a Commercial, Raman-Amplified ULH Transmission System,” in Proc. LEOS PMD Summer Topical Meeting2003, 15–16, Paper MB3.3

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Channel-to-Channel Variation of Non-Maxwellian Statistics of DGD in a Field Installed System,” in Proc. ECOC 2004, 3, 306–309, Paper We1.4.1.

Hague, D.C.

C.T. Allen, P.K. Kondamuri, D.L. Richards, and D.C. Hague, “Measured Temporal and Spectral PMD Characteristics and Their Implication for Network-Level Mitigation Approaches,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 79–86, (2003)
[Crossref]

Karlsson, M.

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P.A. Andrekson, “Long-term Measurement of PMD and Polarization Drift in Installed Fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941–951, (2000).
[Crossref]

Kondamuri, P.K.

C.T. Allen, P.K. Kondamuri, D.L. Richards, and D.C. Hague, “Measured Temporal and Spectral PMD Characteristics and Their Implication for Network-Level Mitigation Approaches,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 79–86, (2003)
[Crossref]

Magill, P.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, C. Antonelli, and A. Mecozzi, “Outage probability for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345–347, (2005)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Polarization-Mode Dispersion of Installed Recent Vintage Fiber as a Parametric Function of Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 209–211, (2004)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Physical Mechanism for Polarization Mode Dispersion Temporal Dynamics,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 18, No. 3, 4–6, (2004)

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “In-Service Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Correlation to Bit-Error Rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 572–574, (2003)
[Crossref]

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “Technique for In-Situ Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 224–225, Paper TuK1.;

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Field PMD Measurements through a Commercial, Raman-Amplified ULH Transmission System,” in Proc. LEOS PMD Summer Topical Meeting2003, 15–16, Paper MB3.3

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Evidence for Parametric Dependence of PMD on Temperature in Installed 0.05 ps/km1/2 Fiber,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, 4, Paper 9.3.2.;

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Channel-to-Channel Variation of Non-Maxwellian Statistics of DGD in a Field Installed System,” in Proc. ECOC 2004, 3, 306–309, Paper We1.4.1.

M. Birk, L. Raddatz, D. A. Fishman, P. Magill, and S. Woodward, “Field trial of end-to-end OC-768 transmission using 9 WDM channels over 1000 km of installed fiber,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 290–291, Paper TuS4.

Mecozzi, A.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, C. Antonelli, and A. Mecozzi, “Outage probability for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345–347, (2005)
[Crossref]

C. Antonelli and A. Mecozzi, “Statistics of the DGD in PMD emulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1840–1842, (2004)
[Crossref]

Raddatz, L.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “In-Service Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Correlation to Bit-Error Rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 572–574, (2003)
[Crossref]

M. Birk, L. Raddatz, D. A. Fishman, P. Magill, and S. Woodward, “Field trial of end-to-end OC-768 transmission using 9 WDM channels over 1000 km of installed fiber,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 290–291, Paper TuS4.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “Technique for In-Situ Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 224–225, Paper TuK1.;

Richards, D.L.

C.T. Allen, P.K. Kondamuri, D.L. Richards, and D.C. Hague, “Measured Temporal and Spectral PMD Characteristics and Their Implication for Network-Level Mitigation Approaches,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 79–86, (2003)
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Physical Mechanism for Polarization Mode Dispersion Temporal Dynamics,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 18, No. 3, 4–6, (2004)

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Field PMD Measurements through a Commercial, Raman-Amplified ULH Transmission System,” in Proc. LEOS PMD Summer Topical Meeting2003, 15–16, Paper MB3.3

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Channel-to-Channel Variation of Non-Maxwellian Statistics of DGD in a Field Installed System,” in Proc. ECOC 2004, 3, 306–309, Paper We1.4.1.

Woodward, S.

M. Birk, L. Raddatz, D. A. Fishman, P. Magill, and S. Woodward, “Field trial of end-to-end OC-768 transmission using 9 WDM channels over 1000 km of installed fiber,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 290–291, Paper TuS4.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, and P.A. Andrekson, “Long-term Measurement of PMD and Polarization Drift in Installed Fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 941–951, (2000).
[Crossref]

C.T. Allen, P.K. Kondamuri, D.L. Richards, and D.C. Hague, “Measured Temporal and Spectral PMD Characteristics and Their Implication for Network-Level Mitigation Approaches,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 79–86, (2003)
[Crossref]

IEEE LEOS Newsletter (1)

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Physical Mechanism for Polarization Mode Dispersion Temporal Dynamics,” IEEE LEOS Newsletter 18, No. 3, 4–6, (2004)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “In-Service Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Correlation to Bit-Error Rate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 572–574, (2003)
[Crossref]

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Polarization-Mode Dispersion of Installed Recent Vintage Fiber as a Parametric Function of Temperature,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 209–211, (2004)
[Crossref]

C. Antonelli and A. Mecozzi, “Statistics of the DGD in PMD emulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1840–1842, (2004)
[Crossref]

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, C. Antonelli, and A. Mecozzi, “Outage probability for fiber routes with finite number of degrees of freedom,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 345–347, (2005)
[Crossref]

Other (5)

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Channel-to-Channel Variation of Non-Maxwellian Statistics of DGD in a Field Installed System,” in Proc. ECOC 2004, 3, 306–309, Paper We1.4.1.

M. Brodsky, M. Boroditsky, P. Magill, N.J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Field PMD Measurements through a Commercial, Raman-Amplified ULH Transmission System,” in Proc. LEOS PMD Summer Topical Meeting2003, 15–16, Paper MB3.3

M. Brodsky, P. Magill, and N.J. Frigo, “Evidence for Parametric Dependence of PMD on Temperature in Installed 0.05 ps/km1/2 Fiber,” in Proc. ECOC 2002, 4, Paper 9.3.2.;

M. Birk, L. Raddatz, D. A. Fishman, P. Magill, and S. Woodward, “Field trial of end-to-end OC-768 transmission using 9 WDM channels over 1000 km of installed fiber,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 290–291, Paper TuS4.

M. Boroditsky, M. Brodsky, N.J. Frigo, P. Magill, and L. Raddatz, “Technique for In-Situ Measurements of Polarization Mode Dispersion,” in Proc. OFC 2003, 1, 224–225, Paper TuK1.;

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Probability density of observations (symbols); Maxwellian distribution with matched means (thin lines).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time averaged DGD, <τ> time , plotted as a function of frequency (solid). Grey band between two dashed lines indicates two standard deviation interval:<τch > time ±σch .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time averaged DGD, <τ> time , plotted as a function of frequency. Datasets A and B are taken on low DGD fiber; datasets C, D and E are taken on high DGD fiber.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized standard deviation (with frequency) of DGD averaged in time: σn (<τ> time ). Numerical simulation for correlated (Δ); decorrelated (▾); completely random (▪) hinges. Experimental data in open circles (○). Dashed line is 1 N + 1 .

Metrics