Abstract

Second harmonic generation (SHG) has been obtained in a rich in sodium niobium borophosphate glass by a thermal poling treatment. The thermally poled glass SHG signal has been studied through an original analysis of both transmitted and reflected polarized Maker-fringe patterns. Therefore, the second order nonlinear optical (NLO) efficiency was estimated from the simulation of the Maker-fringe patterns with a stepwise decreasing profile from the anode surface. A reproducible χ(2) susceptibility value as high as 5.0 ±0.3 pm/V was achieved at the anode side. The nonlinear layer, found to be sodium-depleted up to 5 µm deep inside the anode side, identical to the simulated nonlinear zone thickness, indicates a complex space-charge-migration/ nonlinear glass matrix response process.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. (1)

T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem et. al., �??Nonlinear optical properties of some niobium(V) oxide glasses,�?? Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. t. 33, 597 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Thamboon, D. M. Krol , �?? Second-order nonlinearities in thermally poled phosphate glasses,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 93, 32-37 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. of Non Crist. Sol (1)

T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, G. Le Flem and S. Leboiteux, �??Correlations between structural properties of Nb2O5---NaPO3---Na2B4O7 glasses and non-linear optical activities,�?? J. of Non Crist. Sol. 222, 228 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optics Express (1)

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, F. Smektala, H. Zeghlache, Y. Quiquempois, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, �??Second-harmonic generation of thermally poled chalcogenide glass,�?? Optics Express 13, 789-795 (2005) <a href=" http//www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-789">http//www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-3-789</a>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Quimquempois, N. Godbout and S. Lacroix, �??Model of charge migration during thermal poling in silica glasses Evidence of a voltage threshold for the onset of a second-order nonlinearity,�?? Phys. Rev. A 65, 43816 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Electrical current (in mA) as a function of temperature increase for several fixed external applied voltages (in kV).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental (crosses) and calculated (solid lines) transmitted (a) and reflected (b) polarized Maker-fringe patterns of samples S2 poled 30 mn at 310°C with 1.0 kV. The polarized geometries pp and sp correspond to either a p (in plane) or s (out of plane) polarized incident beam, respectively, and a p polarized harmonic signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated d33 profile obtained for the sample (S2) obtained from the SHG patterns (stepwise profile). A comparison is furthermore given with a rescaled profile of the integrated Poisson’s law deduced from the sodium depletion concentration of Fig. 4.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental (crosses) and smoothing (solid line) depth profiles of the atomic concentration of sodium in S2 from 0 µm (anode surface) to 15 µm inside the nonlinear and linear layers.

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