Abstract

The properties of three sensitization processes: UV hypersensitization, OH-flooding and H2-loading have been investigated through Bragg grating (BG) inscription within standard germanosilicate fibers. More specifically, the stability of the sensitization processes and that of the UV-induced index changes have been investigated through isochronal annealing experiments. Moreover, the level of excess loss induced near 1.4 µm by both the sensitization process and the BG inscription has been estimated by means of in fiber absorption spectroscopy. The level of loss proves to be higher in the hypersensitized or OH-flooded fiber than in the H2-loaded counterpart when pulsed 248 nm light was used.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993)
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Canning, “Photosensitisation and photostabilisation of laser induced index changes in optical fibres,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 6, 275–289 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  3. G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), paper PD 20 (1999)
  4. M. Äslund, J. Canning, and G. Yoffe, “Locking in photosensitivity in optical fibres and waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1826–1828 (1999)
  5. M. Äslund and J. Canning, “Annealing properties of gratings written into UV-presensitised hydrogen out-diffused optical fibres,” Opt. Lett. 25, 692–694 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Canning, M. Äslund, and P.F. Hu, “UV-induced absorption losses in hydrogen-loaded optical fibres and in presensitised optical fibres,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1621–1623 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Fokine and W. Margulis, “Large increase in photosensitivity through massive hydroxyl formation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 302 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Albert, M. Fokine, and W. Margulis, “Grating formation in pure silica-core fibres,” Opt. Lett. 27, 809 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Riziotis, A. Fu, S. Watts, R. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, “Rapid heat treatment for photosensitivity locking in deuterium-loaded planar optical waveguides,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in glass waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BThC31 (2001)
  10. B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Highly stable fiber Bragg gratings written in hydrogen-loaded fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1349–1351 (2000)
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (5)

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993)
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

Äslund, M.

Atkins, R. M.

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993)
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

Dong, X. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Highly stable fiber Bragg gratings written in hydrogen-loaded fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1349–1351 (2000)
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993)
[Crossref]

Fokine, M.

Fu, A.

C. Riziotis, A. Fu, S. Watts, R. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, “Rapid heat treatment for photosensitivity locking in deuterium-loaded planar optical waveguides,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in glass waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BThC31 (2001)

Guan, B. O.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Highly stable fiber Bragg gratings written in hydrogen-loaded fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1349–1351 (2000)
[Crossref]

Hu, P.F.

Kohnke, G.E.

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), paper PD 20 (1999)

Lemaire, P.J.

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993)
[Crossref]

Margulis, W.

Mizrahi, V.

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993)
[Crossref]

Nightingale, D. W.

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), paper PD 20 (1999)

Pollock, C. R.

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), paper PD 20 (1999)

Riziotis, C.

C. Riziotis, A. Fu, S. Watts, R. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, “Rapid heat treatment for photosensitivity locking in deuterium-loaded planar optical waveguides,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in glass waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BThC31 (2001)

Smith, P. G. R.

C. Riziotis, A. Fu, S. Watts, R. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, “Rapid heat treatment for photosensitivity locking in deuterium-loaded planar optical waveguides,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in glass waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BThC31 (2001)

Tam, H. Y.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Highly stable fiber Bragg gratings written in hydrogen-loaded fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1349–1351 (2000)
[Crossref]

Tao, X. M.

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Highly stable fiber Bragg gratings written in hydrogen-loaded fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1349–1351 (2000)
[Crossref]

Watts, S.

C. Riziotis, A. Fu, S. Watts, R. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, “Rapid heat treatment for photosensitivity locking in deuterium-loaded planar optical waveguides,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in glass waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BThC31 (2001)

Wigley, P. G.

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), paper PD 20 (1999)

Williams, R.

C. Riziotis, A. Fu, S. Watts, R. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, “Rapid heat treatment for photosensitivity locking in deuterium-loaded planar optical waveguides,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in glass waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BThC31 (2001)

Yoffe, G.

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. M. Atkins, P.J. Lemaire, T. Erdogan, and V. Mizrahi, “Mechanisms of enhanced UV photosensitivity via hydrogen loading in germanosilicate glasses,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1234–1235 (1993)
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. O. Guan, H. Y. Tam, X. M. Tao, and X. Y. Dong, “Highly stable fiber Bragg gratings written in hydrogen-loaded fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1349–1351 (2000)
[Crossref]

Opt. Fib. Tech. (1)

J. Canning, “Photosensitisation and photostabilisation of laser induced index changes in optical fibres,” Opt. Fib. Tech. 6, 275–289 (2000)
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (2)

C. Riziotis, A. Fu, S. Watts, R. Williams, and P. G. R. Smith, “Rapid heat treatment for photosensitivity locking in deuterium-loaded planar optical waveguides,” Proceedings of Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling in glass waveguides, Stresa, Italy, paper BThC31 (2001)

G.E. Kohnke, D. W. Nightingale, P. G. Wigley, and C. R. Pollock, “Photosensitization of optical fiber by UV exposure of hydrogen loaded fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’99), paper PD 20 (1999)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Growth of the refractive index modulation in the course of the inscription of BG within sensitized and not-sensitized standard telecommunication fibers (SMF 28 Corning). The pump laser is a KrF laser (248 nm, 160mJ/cm2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized refractive index modulation of gratings as function of the 30min isochronal annealing temperature (T). The method used to carry out the fiber sensitization process is the parameter of the experiment.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Shifts in the Bragg wavelengths experienced by the BG as a function of the 30min isochronal annealing temperature (T). The method used to perform the sensitization process before gratings inscriptions is the parameter of the experiment.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Residual normalized enhancement in photosensitivity (Δnmod, Ni=30 000) as a function of the annealing temperature. Two sensitization processes were investigated (OH-flooding and UV hypersensitization).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Evolution of total excess loss near 1.4µm as function as UV-induced modulation index (248 nm) in the sensitized fibers. Three sensitization processes were investigated (OH-flooding, UV hypersensitization and H2-loading).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristics of the gratings at. 296 K

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