Abstract

We employ a Genetic Algorithm for the dispersion optimization of a range of holey fibers (HF) with a small number of air holes but good confinement loss. We demonstrate that a dispersion of 0±0.1 ps/nm/km in the wavelength range between 1.5 and 1.6µm is achievable for HFs with a range of different transversal structures, and discuss some of the trade-offs in terms of dispersion slope, nonlinearity and confinement loss. We then analyze the sensitivity of the total dispersion to small variations from the optimal value of specific structural parameters, and estimate the fabrication accuracy required for the reliable fabrication of such fibers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Electronics Letters (1)

T. Okuno, M. Hirano, T. Kato, M. Shigematsu and M. Onishi, �??Highly nonlinear and perfectly dispersion-flattened fibers for efficient optical signal processing applications,�?? Electronics Letters 39, 972-974 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri and A. H. Bouk, �??Tailoring of flattened dispersion in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1065-1067 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Wu and C. Chao, �??A novel ultra-flattened dispersion photonic crystal fiber,�?? IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 67-69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (7)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, �??Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity,�?? Opt. Express 12, 5082-5087 (2004). <a href= " http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5082"> http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-21-5082<a/>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Hilligse, T. V. Andersen, H. N. Paulsen, C. K. Nielsen, K. Mlmer, S. Keiding, R. Kristiansen, K. P. Hansen, and J. J. Larsen, �??Supercontinuum generation in a photonic crystal fiber with two zero dispersion wavelengths,�?? Opt. Express 12, 1045-1054 (2004). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1045">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1045<a/>
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre and P. Andres, �??Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Express 9, 687-697 (2001). <a href= " http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-687">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-687 <a/>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell and P. J. Roberts �??Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers,�?? Opt. Express 10, 609-613 (2002). <a href= " http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-609"> http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-14-609<a/>
[PubMed]

K. P. Hansen,�??Dispersion flattened hybrid-core nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,�?? Opt. Express 11, 1503-1509 (2003). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-13-1503"> http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-13-1503<a/>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa and E. Sasaoka, �??Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,�?? Opt. Express 11, 843-852 (2003). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-843"> http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-843<a/>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kerrinckx, L. Bigot, M. Douay and Y. Quiquempois, �??Photonic crystal fiber design by means of a genetic algorithm,�?? Opt. Express 12, 1990-1995 (2004). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-382">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-382<a/>
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic algorithms in search, optimization and machine learning, (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fiber structures to be optimized by the GA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Solutions of the Genetic Algorithm for the 3 fibers in Fig. 1. Plot F4 is the dispersion of an 11 rings structure with constant d/Λ for all the holes. The inset zooms on the wavelength range in which the fibers have been optimized

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variation of the total dispersion profile as some structural parameters are changed for fiber F2. Dotted lines indicate a ‘-’ variation, while continuous lines represent a ‘+’ variation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of the total dispersion profile as all the holes in a ring are displaced from optimum position for fiber F2. Dotted lines indicate a ‘-’ variation, while continuous lines represent a ‘+’ variation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sensitivity of the 4 fibers to an error on the dimension of the first ring of air holes: (a) average dispersion parameter and (b) dispersion slope in the interval 1.5–1.6 µm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Structural parameters and optical properties of the best fibers obtained through the GA

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Table 2. Fabrication tolerances for a range of structurally different fibers

Equations (1)

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F = λ i = 1.5 μ m 1.6 μ m D ( λ i )

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