Abstract

A system for full-field laser Doppler blood flow imaging has been developed and tested on biomedical samples. The new imaging system allows 2D flow maps or monitoring flux signals to be obtained from a plurality of measured points simultaneously by using a 2D array of photodetectors. The detection part of the system is based on an intelligent CMOS camera with a built-in digital signal processor and memory. The imaging time of the system is as much as to 4 times faster than for the conventional scanning laser Doppler imager. The performance of the system was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The first measurement results with this new system on human skin are reported.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K.Wårdell, A.Jakobsson, and G .E. Nilsson, �??Laser Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light scattering,�?? IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-316 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

E. R. Fossum, �??CMOS image sensors: electronic camera-on-a-chip,�?? IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 44, 1698-1698 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Eng. (1)

T. J. H. Essex and P. O. Byrne, �??A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,�?? J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189-193 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. D. Briers, G. Richards, and X. W. He, �??Capillary blood flow monitoring using laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA),�?? J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 164-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Lasers Surgery Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, �??Optical properties of intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,�?? Lasers Surgery Med. 12, 510-519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

A. Serov, W. Steenbergen, and F. F. M. de Mul, �??Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 300-302 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Meas. (1)

J. D. Briers, �??Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging,�?? Physiol. Meas. 22, R35-R66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. P. Shepherd and P. �?. �?berg, Laser-Doppler Blood Flowmetry (Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1990).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for full-field laser Doppler flow imaging.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Flux response of the CMOS imager in respect to velocity measured for different Intralipid concentrations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time traces of the perfusion signal obtained with the full-field laser Doppler imaging system. The decays in the perfusion signal are due to (left) the indicated occlusion of the upper arm and (right) the indicated deep breath, a so-called Valsava maneuver.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

128×256 pixel perfusion images of the finger obtained before, during, and after occlusion of the upper arm. The six-level color scale representing relative low-to-high tissue perfusion is displayed below the images.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

64×64 pixel perfusion images of the finger obtained before, during, and after occlusion of the upper arm. The arrow indicates a small wound on the finger where the perfusion is altered by healing. The six-level color scale representing relative low-to-high tissue perfusion is displayed below the images.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

256×256 pixel perfusion images directly after, 3 min after, and 10 min after the immersion of the index finger in the ice water. The six-level color scale representing relative low-to-high tissue perfusion is displayed below the images.

Equations (4)

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Perfusion = C V rms M 1 = 0 ν S ( ν ) d ν ,
Concentration = C M 0 = 0 S ( ν ) d ν ,
Speed M 1 M 0 ,
S ( ν ) = 0 I ( t ) exp ( i 2 π ν t ) d t 2 .

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