Abstract

We use a white-light continuum (WLC) Z-scan technique to measure the degenerate two-photon absorption spectrum and associated dispersion of the nonlinear refraction in ZnSe. The spectral components of the WLC source are separated by using a narrow band variable filter to minimize nondegenerate nonlinearities. We observe a change in sign of the ultrafast nonlinear refractive index around 0.7 of the bandgap energy as predicted by theory.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. G.S. He, T.C Lin, P.N. Prasad, R. Kannan, R.A. Vaia, and L.S. Tan, “New technique for degenerate two-photon absorption spectral measurements using femtosecond continuum generation,” Opt. Express 10, 566 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-13-566
    [PubMed]
  2. M. Balu, J. Hales, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “White-light continuum Z-scan technique for nonlinear material characterization,” Opt. Express 12, 3820 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3820
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. De Boni, A.A. Andrade, L. Misoguti, C.R. Mendoca, and S.C. Zilio, “Z-scan measurements using femtosecond continuum generation,” Opt. Express 12, 3921 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-17-3921
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. E.W. Van Stryland, M.A. Woodall, H. Vanherzeele, and M.J. Soileau, “Energy band-gap dependence of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 10, 490 (1985)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. Xia, D.J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distorsion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 317 (1994)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760(1990)
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Negres, J. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Sheik-Bahae, D.C. Hutchings, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991)
    [Crossref]
  9. http://www.oceanoptics.com/Products/linearvariablefilters.asp
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Yamaguchi and H. Hamaguchi, “Convenient method of measuring the chirp structure of femtosecond white-light continuum pulses,” Appl. Spectrosc. 49, 1513 (1995)
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, and E.W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A.K. Dharmadhikari, F.A. Rajgara, N.C.S. Reddy, A.S. Sandhu, and D. Mathur, “Highly efficient white light generation from barium fluoride,” Opt. Express 12, 695 (2004) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-695
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Private communication, Alex Gaeta, Cornel University
  15. K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. Werner, M. Zhou, and D. Von Der Linde, “Femtosecond continuum generation using a gas-filled hollow fiber”, CLEO Conference, Baltimore, May 23–28, 1999

2004 (3)

2002 (2)

G.S. He, T.C Lin, P.N. Prasad, R. Kannan, R.A. Vaia, and L.S. Tan, “New technique for degenerate two-photon absorption spectral measurements using femtosecond continuum generation,” Opt. Express 10, 566 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-13-566
[PubMed]

R. Negres, J. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002)
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D.C. Hutchings, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991)
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760(1990)
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, and E.W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt.Lett. 14, 955 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, and E.W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

Andrade, A.A.

Balu, M.

De Boni, L.

Dharmadhikari, A.K.

Hagan, D. J.

R. Negres, J. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002)
[Crossref]

Hagan, D.J.

M. Balu, J. Hales, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “White-light continuum Z-scan technique for nonlinear material characterization,” Opt. Express 12, 3820 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3820
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Xia, D.J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distorsion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 317 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D.C. Hutchings, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991)
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760(1990)
[Crossref]

Hales, J.

M. Balu, J. Hales, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “White-light continuum Z-scan technique for nonlinear material characterization,” Opt. Express 12, 3820 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3820
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Negres, J. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002)
[Crossref]

Hamaguchi, H.

He, G.S.

Hutchings, D.C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D.C. Hutchings, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991)
[Crossref]

Kannan, R.

Kobyakov, A.

R. Negres, J. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002)
[Crossref]

Lin, T.C

Mathur, D.

Mendoca, C.R.

Misoguti, L.

Negres, R.

R. Negres, J. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002)
[Crossref]

Prasad, P.N.

Rajgara, F.A.

Reddy, N.C.S.

Said, A.A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760(1990)
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, and E.W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt.Lett. 14, 955 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, and E.W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandhu, A.S.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

T. Xia, D.J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Eclipsing Z-scan measurement of λ/104 wave-front distorsion,” Opt. Lett. 19, 317 (1994)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D.C. Hutchings, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991)
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760(1990)
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, and E.W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt.Lett. 14, 955 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, and E.W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soileau, M.J.

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. Werner, M. Zhou, and D. Von Der Linde, “Femtosecond continuum generation using a gas-filled hollow fiber”, CLEO Conference, Baltimore, May 23–28, 1999

Tan, L.S.

Vaia, R.A.

Van Stryland, E. W.

R. Negres, J. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002)
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E.W.

Vanherzeele, H.

Von Der Linde, D.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. Werner, M. Zhou, and D. Von Der Linde, “Femtosecond continuum generation using a gas-filled hollow fiber”, CLEO Conference, Baltimore, May 23–28, 1999

Wei, T.H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760(1990)
[Crossref]

Werner, K.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. Werner, M. Zhou, and D. Von Der Linde, “Femtosecond continuum generation using a gas-filled hollow fiber”, CLEO Conference, Baltimore, May 23–28, 1999

Woodall, M.A.

Xia, T.

Yamaguchi, S.

Zhou, M.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. Werner, M. Zhou, and D. Von Der Linde, “Femtosecond continuum generation using a gas-filled hollow fiber”, CLEO Conference, Baltimore, May 23–28, 1999

Zilio, S.C.

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, T.H. Wei, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760(1990)
[Crossref]

IEEE J.Quantum Electron. (2)

R. Negres, J. Hales, A. Kobyakov, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Experiment and analysis of two-photon absorption spectroscopy using a white-light continuum probe,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 38, 1205 (2002)
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D.C. Hutchings, D.J. Hagan, and E.W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 27, 1296 (1991)
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt.Lett. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A.A. Said, and E.W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt.Lett. 14, 955 (1989)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Private communication, Alex Gaeta, Cornel University

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, K. Werner, M. Zhou, and D. Von Der Linde, “Femtosecond continuum generation using a gas-filled hollow fiber”, CLEO Conference, Baltimore, May 23–28, 1999

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

WLC spectrum after passing through the low-pass filter

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

WLC Z-scan experimental setup. CPA-2001-femtosecond laser source; WP-waveplate; P-polarizer; L-lens; LVF-linear variable filter; M-mirror; BS-beamsplitter; S-sample; A-aperture; D-detector

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Z-scan data at 580nm and 710nm a) open aperture and b) closed aperture (the result of the division with open aperture). Here each data point is the average of 500 pulses.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

a) 2PA coefficient and b) nonlinear refractive index coefficient obtained from theory and from the experimental data fittings

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