Abstract

Excellent optical interference was experimentally demonstrated in the near infrared region using asymmetric Mach-Zehnder (MZ) type GaAs-based two-dimensional photonic crystal (2DPC) slab waveguides with directional couplers (DCs). As one of two MZ arm lengths changed in units of the lattice constant, the output intensities exhibited sinusoidal curves in excellent agreement with coupled-mode theory. In another experiment where the DCs were operated by two incident optical beams with externally controlled phase’s difference, a sinusoidal change was observed also in output intensities according to the theory of the DC. These results were obtained by virtue of excellent nano-fabrication of the 2DPC structures and pave the way to successful operation of a PC-based ultra-small symmetrical MZ (SMZ) all-optical switch.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K.  Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746–L1748 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E.  Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.
  10. S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).
  12. Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. J.  McNab, N.  Moll, Y. A.  Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 2927–2939 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2927
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.
  22. E. A.  Camargo, H. M. H.  Chong, R. M.  De La Rue, “2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure,” Opt. Express 12, 588–592 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-588
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (8)

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. A.  Camargo, H. M. H.  Chong, R. M.  De La Rue, “2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure,” Opt. Express 12, 588–592 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-588
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Notomi, A.  Shinya, S.  Mitsugi, E.  Kuramochi, H-Y  Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express, 12, pp. 1551–1561 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1551
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H.  Frandsen, A.  Harpøth, P. I.  Borel, M.  Kristensen, J. S.  Jensen, O.  Sigmund, “Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60 bend obtained utilizing topology optimization,” Opt. Express, 12, pp. 5916–5921 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J.  McNab, N.  Moll, Y. A.  Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 2927–2939 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2927
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K.  Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746–L1748 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E.  Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakawa, K.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

Baba, T.

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Brand, S.

T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Camargo, E. A.

Cao, J. R.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, N.

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. J.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

Chutinan, A.

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Rue, R. M.

Fan, S.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

Fukaya, N.

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, A.

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

Griol, A.

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harpøth, A.

Haus, H. A.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

Imada, M.

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

Jensen, J. S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

Kawai, N.

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. J.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, W. J.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
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T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
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M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Lan, S.

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manolatou, C.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, W. K.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Mitsugi, S.

Miyashita, K.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

Nakamura, H.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

Nakamura, S.

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

Nishikawa, S.

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

O’Brien, J. D.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohkouchi, S.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

Painter, O.

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, H-Y

Sanchis, P.

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

Scherer, A.

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M. H.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

Sigmund, O.

Sugimoto, Y.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

Tajima, K.

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K.  Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746–L1748 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

Ueno, Y.

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, Y.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E.  Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonekura, J.

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yukawa, H.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Transaction of Electronics (1)

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746–L1748 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Optics Lett. (1)

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E.  Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

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