Abstract

Excellent optical interference was experimentally demonstrated in the near infrared region using asymmetric Mach-Zehnder (MZ) type GaAs-based two-dimensional photonic crystal (2DPC) slab waveguides with directional couplers (DCs). As one of two MZ arm lengths changed in units of the lattice constant, the output intensities exhibited sinusoidal curves in excellent agreement with coupled-mode theory. In another experiment where the DCs were operated by two incident optical beams with externally controlled phase’s difference, a sinusoidal change was observed also in output intensities according to the theory of the DC. These results were obtained by virtue of excellent nano-fabrication of the 2DPC structures and pave the way to successful operation of a PC-based ultra-small symmetrical MZ (SMZ) all-optical switch.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K.  Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746–L1748 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E.  Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.
  10. S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).
  12. Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. J.  McNab, N.  Moll, Y. A.  Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 2927–2939 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2927
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M.  Notomi, A.  Shinya, S.  Mitsugi, E.  Kuramochi, H-Y  Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express, 12, pp. 1551–1561 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1551
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. H.  Frandsen, A.  Harpøth, P. I.  Borel, M.  Kristensen, J. S.  Jensen, O.  Sigmund, “Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60 bend obtained utilizing topology optimization,” Opt. Express, 12, pp. 5916–5921 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.
  22. E. A.  Camargo, H. M. H.  Chong, R. M.  De La Rue, “2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure,” Opt. Express 12, 588–592 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-588
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (8)

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M.  Notomi, A.  Shinya, S.  Mitsugi, E.  Kuramochi, H-Y  Ryu, “Waveguides, resonators and coupled elements in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express, 12, pp. 1551–1561 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-8-1551
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H.  Frandsen, A.  Harpøth, P. I.  Borel, M.  Kristensen, J. S.  Jensen, O.  Sigmund, “Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60 bend obtained utilizing topology optimization,” Opt. Express, 12, pp. 5916–5921 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5916
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A.  Camargo, H. M. H.  Chong, R. M.  De La Rue, “2D Photonic crystal thermo-optic switch based on AlGaAs/GaAs epitaxial structure,” Opt. Express 12, 588–592 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-4-588
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J.  McNab, N.  Moll, Y. A.  Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11, 2927–2939 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-22-2927
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K.  Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746–L1748 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E.  Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakawa, K.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

Baba, T.

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Brand, S.

T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Camargo, E. A.

Cao, J. R.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, N.

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. J.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

Chutinan, A.

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Rue, R. M.

Fan, S.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

Fukaya, N.

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, A.

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

Griol, A.

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harpøth, A.

Haus, H. A.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

Imada, M.

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

Jensen, J. S.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

Kawai, N.

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. J.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, W. J.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
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T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
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M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

Lan, S.

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manolatou, C.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, W. K.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Mitsugi, S.

Miyashita, K.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

Nakamura, H.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

Nakamura, S.

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

Nishikawa, S.

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

O’Brien, J. D.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohkouchi, S.

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

Painter, O.

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, H-Y

Sanchis, P.

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

Scherer, A.

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M. H.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

Sigmund, O.

Sugimoto, Y.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

Tajima, K.

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K.  Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746–L1748 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, “Low propagation loss of 0.76 dB/mm in GaAs-based single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguides up to 1 cm in length,” Opt. Express 12, 1090–1096 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-6-1090
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

Ueno, Y.

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, Y.

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E.  Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonekura, J.

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yukawa, H.

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S.  Nakamura, Y.  Ueno, K.  Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based Symmetric Mach-Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of straight defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4286–4288, (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. H.  Shih, W. J.  Kim, W.  Kuang, J. R.  Cao, H.  Yukawa, S. J.  Choi, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, W. K.  Marshall, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 460–462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T.  Baba, N.  Fukaya, J.  Yonekura, “Observation of light propagation in photonic crystal optical waveguides with bends,” Electron. Lett. 35, 654–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Transaction of Electronics (1)

K.  Tajima, S.  Nakamura, A.  Furukawa, T.  Sasaki, “Hybrid-Integrated Symmetric Mach-Zehnder All-Optical Switched and Ultrafast Signal Processing,” IEICE Transaction of Electronics, E87-C, pp. 316–327 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Fabrication and Characterization of different types of two-dimensional AlGaAs photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys., 91, 922–929, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, N.  Carlsson, K.  Asakawa, N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, “Experimental verification of guided modes in 60°-bent defect waveguides in AlGaAs-based air-bridge-type two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3477–3479 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys (1)

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Ultra-Small GaAs-Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Near-Infrared Components: Fabrication, Guided-Mode Identification, and Estimation of Low-Loss and Broad Band-Width in Straight Waveguides, 60°-Bends, and Y-splitters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys 43, 6112–6124 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K.  Inoue, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, K.  Asakawa, H.  Sasaki, K.  Ishida, “Ultra-Small Photonic-Crystal-Waveguide-Based Y-Splitters Useful in the Near-Infrared Wavelength Region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L446–L448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.  Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1746–L1748 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

S.  Noda, A.  Chutinan, M.  Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature, 407, 608–610, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F.  Krauss, R. M.  De La Rue, S.  Brand, “Two-dimensional photonic-bandgap structures operating at near-infrared wavelengths,” Nature, 383, 699–702 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Optics Lett. (1)

A.  Martinez, A.  Griol, P.  Sanchis, J.  Marti, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer employing coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Optics Lett. 28, 405–407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S.  Lan, K.  Kanamoto, T.  Yang, S.  Nishikawa, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Similar role of waveguide bends in photonic crystal circuits and disordered defects in coupled cavity waveguides: An intrinsic problem in realizing photonic crystal circuits,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, pp. 115208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.  Fan, P. R.  Villeneuve, J. D.  Joannopoulos, M. J.  Khan, C.  Manolatou, H. A.  Haus, “Theoretical analysis of channel drop tunneling processes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15882–15892 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E.  Yablonovitch, “Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

O.  Painter, R. K.  Lee, A.  Scherer, A.  Yariv, J. D.  O’Brien, P. D.  Dapkus, I.  Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H.  Nakamura, K.  Kanamoto, Y.  Nakamura, S.  Ohkouchi, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, Y.  Sugimoto, H.  Ishikawa, K.  Asakawa, “Large enhancement of optical nonlinearity using quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal structure for all-optical switch applications,” in Proc. LEOS2002, paper ThP2 , (Glasgow, Scotland, 2002), pp. 764–765.

K.  Kanamoto, H.  Nakamura, Y.  Nakamura, Y.  Sugimoto, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Tanaka, S.  Ohkouchi, K.  Asakawa, H.  Ishikawa, “Optical nonlinearity in InAs quantum dots embedded in a photonic crystal waveguide for all-optical switch application,” in Technical Digest International Symposium on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures V (PECS-V) , (Kyoto, Japan, 2004), pp. 238.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the GaAs-based PC-SMZ. Hatched areas are selectively embedded with InAs QDs that exhibit large NLO properties. (b) Schematic showing the principle of the time-differential SMZ operation. (c) A 2DPC MZI pattern with cascaded CCDCs for an input divider and output coupler. Dashed rectangles show two sorts of optical interference experiments. (d) SEM photographs of an air-bridge type 2DPC slab sample with the MZI pattern and an expanded bend portion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of the PC-based symmetric MZI pattern with two identical CCDCs for characterization of single CCDC and cascaded CCDCs. (b) Theoretical curves for normalized beam intensities monitored at O DC-a and O DC-b . (c) Measured transmittance spectra for the sample with single CCDC. (d) Measured transmittance spectra for the sample with cascaded CCDCs. In both spectra, black and red curves show transmittances of un-coupled and coupled beam spectra, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic of the asymmetric MZI arm pattern. (b) Schematic of the detailed asymmetric MZI arm pattern with the arm length in one side shortened by ΔLn =-n×a (n=1 ~6) by shifting the position of the arm row by row. (c) Calculated band diagram for the 2DPC slab waveguide with a=360 nm and r=210 nm for deriving the wave number at λ=1340 nm. (d) Calculated band diagram for the 2DPC slab waveguide with a=420 nm and r=260 nm for deriving the wave number at λ=1525 nm. (e) Theoretical coupled (red solid line) and un-coupled (black dotted line) beam intensity curves at the output ports O MZ-b and O MZ-a as a function of ΔL, respectively, where a=360 nm and k is assumed to be 0.33. The measured output intensities are plotted by red filled circles. (f) Theoretical and measured intensities plotted similarly to (e), where a=420 nm and k is assumed to be 0.30. (g) Measured transmittance spectra for ΔL=5a in Fig. 3 (f), where black and red curves correspond to uncoupled and coupled beams, as shown schematically by the arrows in the left picture.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic picture of the CCDC used in the experiment, whereby two beams with different phases are incident on the input ports Ia and Ib . (b) Measured normalized intensities (blue plots) n-O DC-a , monitored at the port O DC-a . A sinusoidal red curve shows theoretical one calculated by the theory of the DC.

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