Abstract

We present photoacoustic images of tumor neovascularization obtained over a 10-day period after subcutaneous inoculation of pancreatic tumor cells in a rat. The images were obtained from ultrasound generated by absorption in hemoglobin of short laser pulses at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The ultrasound signals were measured in reflection mode using a single scanning piezodetector, and images were reconstructed with a weighted delay-and-sum algorithm. Three-dimensional data visualize the development and quantify the extent of individual blood vessels around the growing tumor, blood concentration changes inside the tumor and growth in depth of the neovascularized region.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Hasan, R. Byers, and G.C. Jayson, “Intra-tumoral microvessel density in human solid tumors,” Br. J. Cancer 86, 1566–1577 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M.V. Knopp, H. von Tengg-Kobligk, and P.L. Choyke, “Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology for diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 2, 419–426 (2003).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (6)

S.J. van Belle and V. Cocquyt, “Impact of haemoglobin levels on the outcome of cancers treated with chemotherapy,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 47, 1–11 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.V. Knopp, H. von Tengg-Kobligk, and P.L. Choyke, “Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology for diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 2, 419–426 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

X.D. Wang, Y.J. Pang, G. Ku G, X.Y. Xie, G Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.C. Pilatou, N.J. Voogd, F.F.M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L.N.A. van Adrichem, “Analysis of three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of a vascular tree in vitro,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4495–4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R.A. Kruger, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography using a conventional linear transducer array,” Med. Phys. 30, 856–860 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

J. Hasan, R. Byers, and G.C. Jayson, “Intra-tumoral microvessel density in human solid tumors,” Br. J. Cancer 86, 1566–1577 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.D. Menger, M.W. Laschke, and B Vollmar, “Viewing the microcirculation through the window: some twenty years experience with the hamster dorsal skinfold chamber,” Eur. Surg. Res. 34, 83–91 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

H. Anderson, P. Price, M. Blomley, M.O. Leach, and P Workman, “Measuring changes in human tumor vasculature in response to therapy using functional imaging techniques,” Br. J. Cancer 85, 1085–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.G.H. Hoelen, A. Dekker, and F.F.M. de Mul, “Detection of photoacoustic transients originating from microstructures in optically diffuse media such as biological tissue”, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 37–47 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

2000 (6)

R.A. Kruger, K.D. Miller, H.E. Reynolds, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216, 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

C.G.A. Hoelen and F.F.M. de Mul, “Image reconstruction for photoacoustic scanning of tissue structures,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5872–5883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Dewhirst, B. Klitzman, R.D. Braun, D.M. Brizel, Z.A. Haroon, and T.W. Secomb, “Review of methods used to study oxygen transport at the microcirculatory level,” Int. J. Cancer 90, 237–255 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Achilefu, R.B. Dorshow, J.E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,”. Invest. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Carmeliet and R.K. Jain, “Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases,” Nature 407, 249–257, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ramanujan, G.C. Koenig, T.P. Padera, B.R. Stoll, and R.K. Jain, “Local imbalance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors: a potential mechanism of focal necrosis and dormancy in tumors,” Cancer Res. 60, 1442–1448 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

C.G.A. Hoelen and F.F.M. de Mul, “A new theoretical approach to photoacoustic signal generation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 695–706 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C.G.A. Hoelen, F.F.M. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, “Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissue,” Opt. Lett. 23, 648–650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G.L. Semenza, “Hypoxia-inducible factor 1: master regulator of O2 homeostasis,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 8, 588–594 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Folkman, “New perspectives in clinical oncology from angiogenesis research,” Eur. J. Cancer 32A, 2534–2539 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. Folkman, “Angiogenesis in cancer, vascular, rheumatoid and other disease,” Nat. Med. 1, 27–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achilefu, S.

S. Achilefu, R.B. Dorshow, J.E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,”. Invest. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, H.

H. Anderson, P. Price, M. Blomley, M.O. Leach, and P Workman, “Measuring changes in human tumor vasculature in response to therapy using functional imaging techniques,” Br. J. Cancer 85, 1085–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreev, V.A.

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Bell, B.A.

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Blomley, M.

H. Anderson, P. Price, M. Blomley, M.O. Leach, and P Workman, “Measuring changes in human tumor vasculature in response to therapy using functional imaging techniques,” Br. J. Cancer 85, 1085–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohlen, P.

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

Bornhop, D.J.

Braun, R.D.

M.W. Dewhirst, B. Klitzman, R.D. Braun, D.M. Brizel, Z.A. Haroon, and T.W. Secomb, “Review of methods used to study oxygen transport at the microcirculatory level,” Int. J. Cancer 90, 237–255 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brizel, D.M.

M.W. Dewhirst, B. Klitzman, R.D. Braun, D.M. Brizel, Z.A. Haroon, and T.W. Secomb, “Review of methods used to study oxygen transport at the microcirculatory level,” Int. J. Cancer 90, 237–255 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bugaj, J.E.

S. Achilefu, R.B. Dorshow, J.E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,”. Invest. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byers, R.

J. Hasan, R. Byers, and G.C. Jayson, “Intra-tumoral microvessel density in human solid tumors,” Br. J. Cancer 86, 1566–1577 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmeliet, P.

P. Carmeliet and R.K. Jain, “Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases,” Nature 407, 249–257, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choyke, P.L.

M.V. Knopp, H. von Tengg-Kobligk, and P.L. Choyke, “Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology for diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 2, 419–426 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cocquyt, V.

S.J. van Belle and V. Cocquyt, “Impact of haemoglobin levels on the outcome of cancers treated with chemotherapy,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 47, 1–11 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, T.L.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

de Mul, F.F.M.

M.C. Pilatou, N.J. Voogd, F.F.M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L.N.A. van Adrichem, “Analysis of three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of a vascular tree in vitro,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4495–4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.G.H. Hoelen, A. Dekker, and F.F.M. de Mul, “Detection of photoacoustic transients originating from microstructures in optically diffuse media such as biological tissue”, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 37–47 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.G.A. Hoelen and F.F.M. de Mul, “Image reconstruction for photoacoustic scanning of tissue structures,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5872–5883 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.G.A. Hoelen and F.F.M. de Mul, “A new theoretical approach to photoacoustic signal generation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 695–706 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.G.A. Hoelen, F.F.M. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, “Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissue,” Opt. Lett. 23, 648–650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A.

C.G.H. Hoelen, A. Dekker, and F.F.M. de Mul, “Detection of photoacoustic transients originating from microstructures in optically diffuse media such as biological tissue”, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 37–47 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.G.A. Hoelen, F.F.M. de Mul, R. Pongers, and A. Dekker, “Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissue,” Opt. Lett. 23, 648–650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delorme, S.

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

Dewhirst, M.W.

M.W. Dewhirst, B. Klitzman, R.D. Braun, D.M. Brizel, Z.A. Haroon, and T.W. Secomb, “Review of methods used to study oxygen transport at the microcirculatory level,” Int. J. Cancer 90, 237–255 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorshow, R.B.

S. Achilefu, R.B. Dorshow, J.E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,”. Invest. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farhan, N.

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

Fleming, R.D.

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Folkman, J.

J. Folkman, “New perspectives in clinical oncology from angiogenesis research,” Eur. J. Cancer 32A, 2534–2539 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Folkman, “Angiogenesis in cancer, vascular, rheumatoid and other disease,” Nat. Med. 1, 27–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusenig, N.E.

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gatalica, Z.

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Haroon, Z.A.

M.W. Dewhirst, B. Klitzman, R.D. Braun, D.M. Brizel, Z.A. Haroon, and T.W. Secomb, “Review of methods used to study oxygen transport at the microcirculatory level,” Int. J. Cancer 90, 237–255 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, J.

J. Hasan, R. Byers, and G.C. Jayson, “Intra-tumoral microvessel density in human solid tumors,” Br. J. Cancer 86, 1566–1577 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henrichs, M.

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Hoelen, C.G.A.

Hoelen, C.G.H.

C.G.H. Hoelen, A. Dekker, and F.F.M. de Mul, “Detection of photoacoustic transients originating from microstructures in optically diffuse media such as biological tissue”, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 37–47 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R.K.

S. Ramanujan, G.C. Koenig, T.P. Padera, B.R. Stoll, and R.K. Jain, “Local imbalance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors: a potential mechanism of focal necrosis and dormancy in tumors,” Cancer Res. 60, 1442–1448 (2000).
[PubMed]

P. Carmeliet and R.K. Jain, “Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases,” Nature 407, 249–257, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jayson, G.C.

J. Hasan, R. Byers, and G.C. Jayson, “Intra-tumoral microvessel density in human solid tumors,” Br. J. Cancer 86, 1566–1577 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karabutov, A.A.

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Kiessling, F.

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kiser, W.L.

R.A. Kruger, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography using a conventional linear transducer array,” Med. Phys. 30, 856–860 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.A. Kruger, K.D. Miller, H.E. Reynolds, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216, 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Klitzman, B.

M.W. Dewhirst, B. Klitzman, R.D. Braun, D.M. Brizel, Z.A. Haroon, and T.W. Secomb, “Review of methods used to study oxygen transport at the microcirculatory level,” Int. J. Cancer 90, 237–255 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knopp, M.V.

M.V. Knopp, H. von Tengg-Kobligk, and P.L. Choyke, “Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology for diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 2, 419–426 (2003).
[PubMed]

Koenig, G.C.

S. Ramanujan, G.C. Koenig, T.P. Padera, B.R. Stoll, and R.K. Jain, “Local imbalance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors: a potential mechanism of focal necrosis and dormancy in tumors,” Cancer Res. 60, 1442–1448 (2000).
[PubMed]

Krix, M.

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kruger, G.A.

R.A. Kruger, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography using a conventional linear transducer array,” Med. Phys. 30, 856–860 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.A. Kruger, K.D. Miller, H.E. Reynolds, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216, 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Kruger, R.A.

R.A. Kruger, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography using a conventional linear transducer array,” Med. Phys. 30, 856–860 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.A. Kruger, K.D. Miller, H.E. Reynolds, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216, 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ku, G.

Ku G, G.

X.D. Wang, Y.J. Pang, G. Ku G, X.Y. Xie, G Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laschke, M.W.

M.D. Menger, M.W. Laschke, and B Vollmar, “Viewing the microcirculation through the window: some twenty years experience with the hamster dorsal skinfold chamber,” Eur. Surg. Res. 34, 83–91 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leach, M.O.

H. Anderson, P. Price, M. Blomley, M.O. Leach, and P Workman, “Measuring changes in human tumor vasculature in response to therapy using functional imaging techniques,” Br. J. Cancer 85, 1085–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lecomte, R.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

McCarthy, T.J.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

Meikle, S.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

Menger, M.D.

M.D. Menger, M.W. Laschke, and B Vollmar, “Viewing the microcirculation through the window: some twenty years experience with the hamster dorsal skinfold chamber,” Eur. Surg. Res. 34, 83–91 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, K.D.

R.A. Kruger, K.D. Miller, H.E. Reynolds, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216, 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Mueller, M.M.

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

Oraevsky, A.A.

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Padera, T.P.

S. Ramanujan, G.C. Koenig, T.P. Padera, B.R. Stoll, and R.K. Jain, “Local imbalance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors: a potential mechanism of focal necrosis and dormancy in tumors,” Cancer Res. 60, 1442–1448 (2000).
[PubMed]

Pang, Y.J.

X.D. Wang, Y.J. Pang, G. Ku G, X.Y. Xie, G Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilatou, M.C.

M.C. Pilatou, N.J. Voogd, F.F.M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L.N.A. van Adrichem, “Analysis of three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of a vascular tree in vitro,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4495–4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pongers, R.

Price, P.

H. Anderson, P. Price, M. Blomley, M.O. Leach, and P Workman, “Measuring changes in human tumor vasculature in response to therapy using functional imaging techniques,” Br. J. Cancer 85, 1085–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajagopalan, R.

S. Achilefu, R.B. Dorshow, J.E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,”. Invest. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujan, S.

S. Ramanujan, G.C. Koenig, T.P. Padera, B.R. Stoll, and R.K. Jain, “Local imbalance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors: a potential mechanism of focal necrosis and dormancy in tumors,” Cancer Res. 60, 1442–1448 (2000).
[PubMed]

Reinecke, D.R.

R.A. Kruger, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography using a conventional linear transducer array,” Med. Phys. 30, 856–860 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R.A. Kruger, K.D. Miller, H.E. Reynolds, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216, 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Reynolds, H.E.

R.A. Kruger, K.D. Miller, H.E. Reynolds, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216, 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ruth, T.J.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

Savateeva, E.V.

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Scopinaro, F.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

Secomb, T.W.

M.W. Dewhirst, B. Klitzman, R.D. Braun, D.M. Brizel, Z.A. Haroon, and T.W. Secomb, “Review of methods used to study oxygen transport at the microcirculatory level,” Int. J. Cancer 90, 237–255 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semenza, G.L.

G.L. Semenza, “Hypoxia-inducible factor 1: master regulator of O2 homeostasis,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 8, 588–594 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Signore, A.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

Singh, H.

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Solomatin, S.V.

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

Steenbergen, W.

M.C. Pilatou, N.J. Voogd, F.F.M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L.N.A. van Adrichem, “Analysis of three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of a vascular tree in vitro,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4495–4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoica, G

X.D. Wang, Y.J. Pang, G. Ku G, X.Y. Xie, G Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

Stoll, B.R.

S. Ramanujan, G.C. Koenig, T.P. Padera, B.R. Stoll, and R.K. Jain, “Local imbalance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors: a potential mechanism of focal necrosis and dormancy in tumors,” Cancer Res. 60, 1442–1448 (2000).
[PubMed]

Thomsen, S.L.

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

van Adrichem, L.N.A.

M.C. Pilatou, N.J. Voogd, F.F.M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L.N.A. van Adrichem, “Analysis of three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of a vascular tree in vitro,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4495–4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

van Belle, S.J.

S.J. van Belle and V. Cocquyt, “Impact of haemoglobin levels on the outcome of cancers treated with chemotherapy,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 47, 1–11 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van de Wiele, C.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

VanBrocklin, H.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

Vollmar, B

M.D. Menger, M.W. Laschke, and B Vollmar, “Viewing the microcirculation through the window: some twenty years experience with the hamster dorsal skinfold chamber,” Eur. Surg. Res. 34, 83–91 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Tengg-Kobligk, H.

M.V. Knopp, H. von Tengg-Kobligk, and P.L. Choyke, “Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology for diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 2, 419–426 (2003).
[PubMed]

Voogd, N.J.

M.C. Pilatou, N.J. Voogd, F.F.M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L.N.A. van Adrichem, “Analysis of three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of a vascular tree in vitro,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4495–4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vosseler, S.

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

Wang, L.H.V.

X.D. Wang, G. Ku, M.A. Wegiel, D.J. Bornhop, G. Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic angiography of animal brains in vivo with near-infrared light and an optical contrast agent,” Opt. Lett. 29, 730–732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.D. Wang, Y.J. Pang, G. Ku G, X.Y. Xie, G Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.D.

X.D. Wang, G. Ku, M.A. Wegiel, D.J. Bornhop, G. Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic angiography of animal brains in vivo with near-infrared light and an optical contrast agent,” Opt. Lett. 29, 730–732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.D. Wang, Y.J. Pang, G. Ku G, X.Y. Xie, G Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waterhouse, R.N.

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

Wegiel, M.A.

Workman, P

H. Anderson, P. Price, M. Blomley, M.O. Leach, and P Workman, “Measuring changes in human tumor vasculature in response to therapy using functional imaging techniques,” Br. J. Cancer 85, 1085–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X.Y.

X.D. Wang, Y.J. Pang, G. Ku G, X.Y. Xie, G Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Cancer (2)

J. Hasan, R. Byers, and G.C. Jayson, “Intra-tumoral microvessel density in human solid tumors,” Br. J. Cancer 86, 1566–1577 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Anderson, P. Price, M. Blomley, M.O. Leach, and P Workman, “Measuring changes in human tumor vasculature in response to therapy using functional imaging techniques,” Br. J. Cancer 85, 1085–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (2)

M. Krix, F. Kiessling, S. Vosseler, N. Farhan, M.M. Mueller, P. Bohlen, N.E. Fusenig, and S. Delorme, “Sensitive noninvasive monitoring of tumor perfusion during antiangiogenic therapy by intermittent bolus-contrast power Doppler sonography,” Cancer Res. 63, 8264–8270 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. Ramanujan, G.C. Koenig, T.P. Padera, B.R. Stoll, and R.K. Jain, “Local imbalance of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors: a potential mechanism of focal necrosis and dormancy in tumors,” Cancer Res. 60, 1442–1448 (2000).
[PubMed]

Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. (1)

S.J. van Belle and V. Cocquyt, “Impact of haemoglobin levels on the outcome of cancers treated with chemotherapy,” Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 47, 1–11 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. (1)

G.L. Semenza, “Hypoxia-inducible factor 1: master regulator of O2 homeostasis,” Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 8, 588–594 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Markers (1)

T.L. Collier, R. Lecomte, T.J. McCarthy, S. Meikle, T.J. Ruth, F. Scopinaro, A. Signore, H. VanBrocklin, C. Van de Wiele, and R.N. Waterhouse, “Assessment of cancer-associated biomarkers by positron emission tomography: advances and challenges,” Dis. Markers 18, 211–247 (2002).

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

J. Folkman, “New perspectives in clinical oncology from angiogenesis research,” Eur. J. Cancer 32A, 2534–2539 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Surg. Res. (1)

M.D. Menger, M.W. Laschke, and B Vollmar, “Viewing the microcirculation through the window: some twenty years experience with the hamster dorsal skinfold chamber,” Eur. Surg. Res. 34, 83–91 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

C.G.H. Hoelen, A. Dekker, and F.F.M. de Mul, “Detection of photoacoustic transients originating from microstructures in optically diffuse media such as biological tissue”, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 48, 37–47 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE (1)

A.A. Oraevsky, A.A. Karabutov, S.V. Solomatin, E.V. Savateeva, V.A. Andreev, Z. Gatalica, H. Singh, and R.D. Fleming, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” in Biomedical Optoacoustics II, Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–15 (2001).

Int. J. Cancer (1)

M.W. Dewhirst, B. Klitzman, R.D. Braun, D.M. Brizel, Z.A. Haroon, and T.W. Secomb, “Review of methods used to study oxygen transport at the microcirculatory level,” Int. J. Cancer 90, 237–255 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Radiol. (1)

S. Achilefu, R.B. Dorshow, J.E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,”. Invest. Radiol. 35, 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

C.G.A. Hoelen and F.F.M. de Mul, “A new theoretical approach to photoacoustic signal generation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 695–706 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

R.A. Kruger, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Thermoacoustic computed tomography using a conventional linear transducer array,” Med. Phys. 30, 856–860 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mol. Cancer Ther. (1)

M.V. Knopp, H. von Tengg-Kobligk, and P.L. Choyke, “Functional magnetic resonance imaging in oncology for diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 2, 419–426 (2003).
[PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

X.D. Wang, Y.J. Pang, G. Ku G, X.Y. Xie, G Stoica, and L.H.V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

J. Folkman, “Angiogenesis in cancer, vascular, rheumatoid and other disease,” Nat. Med. 1, 27–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

P. Carmeliet and R.K. Jain, “Angiogenesis in cancer and other diseases,” Nature 407, 249–257, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Radiology (1)

R.A. Kruger, K.D. Miller, H.E. Reynolds, W.L. Kiser, D.R. Reinecke, and G.A. Kruger, “Breast cancer in vivo: contrast enhancement with thermoacoustic CT at 434 MHz-feasibility study,” Radiology 216, 279–283 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M.C. Pilatou, N.J. Voogd, F.F.M. de Mul, W. Steenbergen, and L.N.A. van Adrichem, “Analysis of three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging of a vascular tree in vitro,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4495–4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A.A. Karabutov, V.A. Andreev, B.A. Bell, R.D. Fleming, Z. Gatalica, M. Motamedi, E.V. Savateeva, H. Singh, S.V. Solomatin, S.L. Thomsen, M. Henrichs, and A.A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic images of early cancer in forward and backward modes,” in Hybrid and Novel Imaging and New Optical Instrumentation for Biomedical Applications, A. Boccara and A.A. Oraevsky; eds., Proc. SPIE4434, 13–27 (2001).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Serial photographs of the tumor inoculation site on the hind limb of the animal, on day 3 (a), day 7 (b), day 8 (c) and day 10 (d).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoacoustic images: maximum intensity projections of the acoustic source strength in the xy-plane (top view on the tissue, with in each pixel the maximum value found in all voxels below that pixel) on the indicated days (tumor cells inoculated on day 1). The color scaling in all images relates to the same absolute value. Therefore the images reveal the development of the amplitude of the photoacoustic signals during the tumor growth process.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Depth development of blood vessels. Slices of 150 micrometers thickness in the xz-plane, evenly distributed over the next ranges of y-positions: Fig. a (day 3): 0<y<6.75 mm; Fig. b, c, d (day 7–10): 0<y<15 mm; Images for day 3 are numbered 1..10 in the order of increasing y-position with image 1 at y=0 mm, with identical order for the other days. The thin white line indicates the skin contour.

Equations (1)

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S f = i = 1 N w i f s i ( t + δ i f ) i = 1 N w i f

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