Abstract

In this report the optical properties of ReS2 are characterized using polarized thermoreflectance (PTR) measurements in the temperature range between 25 and 300 K. Single crystals of ReS2 were grown by chemical vapor transport method using Br2 as a transport agent. Crystal morphologies of the as-grown rhenium disulfides were shown to possess two different kinds of the structural phases after crystallization. Observing in detail on the crystallized solids, the crystal phases can be essentially divided into two distinct types of normal triclinic layer and tetragonal structure. The PTR experiments were done with optical polarizations along and perpendicular to the crystals’ b-axis for both layer and tetragonal crystals. From the experimental analyses of PTR measurements the occurrence of structural change in ReS2 is mostly probable caused by the atomic bonding deformation along b-axis, which is parallel to the Re4 parallelogram consisted diamond chains. Temperature dependences of the band-edge transitions for the different structural phases of ReS2 are analyzed. The parameters that describe temperature variations of the transition energies and broadening parameters for both layered and tetragonal ReS2 are evaluated and discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. V.  Marzik, R.  Kershaw, K.  Diwght, A.  Wold, “Photoelectronic properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 51, 170–175 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, T. R.  Yang, K. K.  Tiong, “Optical absorption of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6380–6383 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A.  Wilson, A. D.  Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural Properties,” Adv. Phys. 18, 193–335 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. S.  Broadbent, L. H.  Slangh, N. L.  Jarvis, “Rhenium sulfides as liquid-phase hydrogenation catalysts. A comparison with Molybdenum sulfide and Cobalt polysulfide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1519–1523 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.  Harris, R. R.  Chianelli, “Catalysis by transition metal sulfides: The relation between calculated electronic trends and HDS activity,” J. Catal. 86, 400–412 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. P.  Koffyberg, K.  Dwight, A.  Wold, “Interband transitions of semiconducting oxides determined from photoelectrolysis spectra,” Solid State Commun. 30, 433–437 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. L.  Wheeler, J. K.  Leand, A. J.  Bard, “Semiconductor electrodes LX. photoelectrochemistry of p-ReS2 and p-ReSe2 in aqueous solutions,” J. Electrochem. Chem. 133, 358–361 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, P. C.  Liao, “Absorption-edge anisotropy in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16130–16135 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 ,” Solid State Commun. 103, 19–23 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “In-plane anisotropy of the optical and electrical properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 layered crystals,” J. Alloys Comp. 317–318, 222–226 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K.  Friemelt, M.-Ch.  Lux-Steiner, E.  Bucher, “Optical properties of the layered transition-metal-dichalcogenide ReS2: Anisotropy in the van der Waals plane,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5266–5268 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Yen, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Photoreflectance study of the excitonic transitions of rhenium disulphide layer compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245207 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, C. C.  Wu, “Polarization sensitive behavior of the band-edge transitions in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 5937–5944 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. C.  Wildervanck, F.  Jellinek, “The dichalcogenides of technetium and rhenium,” J. Less-Common Met. 24, 73–81 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, P. C.  Liao, K. K.  Tiong, “Crystal structure and band-edge transitions of ReS2-xSex layered compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 1797–1804 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. -J.  Lamfers, A.  Meetsma, G. A.  Wiegers, J. L.  de Boer, “The crystal structure of some rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides,” J. Alloys and comp. 241, 34–39 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, Z. H.  Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1098–1102 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. E.  Aspnes, in Handbook on Semiconductors, edited by M.  Balkanski (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1980) 109.
  19. F. H.  Pollak, H.  Shen, “Modulation Spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surface/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 10, 275–374 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M.  Brorson, T. W.  Hansen, C. J. H.  Jacobsen, “Rhenium(IV) sulfide nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11582–11583 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. P.  Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34, 149–154 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. P.  O’Donnel, X  Chen, “Temperature dependence of semiconductor band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2924–2926 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z.  Hang, D.  Yan, F. H.  Pollak, G. D.  Pettit, J. M.  Woodall, “Temperature dependence of the direct band gap of InxGa1-xAs (x=0.06 and 0.15),” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10546–10550 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L.  Malikova, W.  Krystek, F. H.  Pollak, N.  Dai, A.  Cavus, M. C.  Tamargo, “Temperature dependence of the direct gaps of ZnSe and Zn0.56Cd0.44Se,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 1819–1824 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, P.  Lautenschlager, M.  Garriga, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical points of CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2458–2469(1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P.  Lantenschlager, M.  Garriga, S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phy. Rev. B 35, 9174–9189 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Z.  Hang, H.  Shen, Fred H.  Pollak, “Temperature dependence of the Eo and Eo+?0 gaps of InP up to 600°C,” Solid State Comm. 73, 15–18 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. Y.  Chung, D. Y.  Lin, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of InP near the absorption edge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1850–1856 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2004

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, C. C.  Wu, “Polarization sensitive behavior of the band-edge transitions in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 5937–5944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, Z. H.  Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1098–1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Brorson, T. W.  Hansen, C. J. H.  Jacobsen, “Rhenium(IV) sulfide nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11582–11583 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Yen, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Photoreflectance study of the excitonic transitions of rhenium disulphide layer compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “In-plane anisotropy of the optical and electrical properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 layered crystals,” J. Alloys Comp. 317–318, 222–226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, P. C.  Liao, K. K.  Tiong, “Crystal structure and band-edge transitions of ReS2-xSex layered compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 1797–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, P. C.  Liao, “Absorption-edge anisotropy in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16130–16135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 ,” Solid State Commun. 103, 19–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, T. R.  Yang, K. K.  Tiong, “Optical absorption of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6380–6383 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. -J.  Lamfers, A.  Meetsma, G. A.  Wiegers, J. L.  de Boer, “The crystal structure of some rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides,” J. Alloys and comp. 241, 34–39 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L.  Malikova, W.  Krystek, F. H.  Pollak, N.  Dai, A.  Cavus, M. C.  Tamargo, “Temperature dependence of the direct gaps of ZnSe and Zn0.56Cd0.44Se,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 1819–1824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y.  Chung, D. Y.  Lin, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of InP near the absorption edge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1850–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. H.  Pollak, H.  Shen, “Modulation Spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surface/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 10, 275–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K.  Friemelt, M.-Ch.  Lux-Steiner, E.  Bucher, “Optical properties of the layered transition-metal-dichalcogenide ReS2: Anisotropy in the van der Waals plane,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5266–5268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. P.  O’Donnel, X  Chen, “Temperature dependence of semiconductor band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2924–2926 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Hang, D.  Yan, F. H.  Pollak, G. D.  Pettit, J. M.  Woodall, “Temperature dependence of the direct band gap of InxGa1-xAs (x=0.06 and 0.15),” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10546–10550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

Z.  Hang, H.  Shen, Fred H.  Pollak, “Temperature dependence of the Eo and Eo+?0 gaps of InP up to 600°C,” Solid State Comm. 73, 15–18 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

P.  Lantenschlager, M.  Garriga, S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phy. Rev. B 35, 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, P.  Lautenschlager, M.  Garriga, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical points of CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2458–2469(1986).
[CrossRef]

B. L.  Wheeler, J. K.  Leand, A. J.  Bard, “Semiconductor electrodes LX. photoelectrochemistry of p-ReS2 and p-ReSe2 in aqueous solutions,” J. Electrochem. Chem. 133, 358–361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

V.  Marzik, R.  Kershaw, K.  Diwght, A.  Wold, “Photoelectronic properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 51, 170–175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S.  Harris, R. R.  Chianelli, “Catalysis by transition metal sulfides: The relation between calculated electronic trends and HDS activity,” J. Catal. 86, 400–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979

F. P.  Koffyberg, K.  Dwight, A.  Wold, “Interband transitions of semiconducting oxides determined from photoelectrolysis spectra,” Solid State Commun. 30, 433–437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. C.  Wildervanck, F.  Jellinek, “The dichalcogenides of technetium and rhenium,” J. Less-Common Met. 24, 73–81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

J. A.  Wilson, A. D.  Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural Properties,” Adv. Phys. 18, 193–335 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967

Y. P.  Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34, 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1954

H. S.  Broadbent, L. H.  Slangh, N. L.  Jarvis, “Rhenium sulfides as liquid-phase hydrogenation catalysts. A comparison with Molybdenum sulfide and Cobalt polysulfide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1519–1523 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E.  Aspnes, in Handbook on Semiconductors, edited by M.  Balkanski (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1980) 109.

Bard, A. J.

B. L.  Wheeler, J. K.  Leand, A. J.  Bard, “Semiconductor electrodes LX. photoelectrochemistry of p-ReS2 and p-ReSe2 in aqueous solutions,” J. Electrochem. Chem. 133, 358–361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Broadbent, H. S.

H. S.  Broadbent, L. H.  Slangh, N. L.  Jarvis, “Rhenium sulfides as liquid-phase hydrogenation catalysts. A comparison with Molybdenum sulfide and Cobalt polysulfide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1519–1523 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Brorson, M.

M.  Brorson, T. W.  Hansen, C. J. H.  Jacobsen, “Rhenium(IV) sulfide nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11582–11583 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, G.

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucher, E.

K.  Friemelt, M.-Ch.  Lux-Steiner, E.  Bucher, “Optical properties of the layered transition-metal-dichalcogenide ReS2: Anisotropy in the van der Waals plane,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5266–5268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

P.  Lantenschlager, M.  Garriga, S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phy. Rev. B 35, 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, P.  Lautenschlager, M.  Garriga, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical points of CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2458–2469(1986).
[CrossRef]

Cavus, A.

L.  Malikova, W.  Krystek, F. H.  Pollak, N.  Dai, A.  Cavus, M. C.  Tamargo, “Temperature dependence of the direct gaps of ZnSe and Zn0.56Cd0.44Se,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 1819–1824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X

K. P.  O’Donnel, X  Chen, “Temperature dependence of semiconductor band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2924–2926 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z. H.

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, Z. H.  Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1098–1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chianelli, R. R.

S.  Harris, R. R.  Chianelli, “Catalysis by transition metal sulfides: The relation between calculated electronic trends and HDS activity,” J. Catal. 86, 400–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. Y.

S. Y.  Chung, D. Y.  Lin, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of InP near the absorption edge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1850–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clancy, G. P.

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, K. S.

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, N.

L.  Malikova, W.  Krystek, F. H.  Pollak, N.  Dai, A.  Cavus, M. C.  Tamargo, “Temperature dependence of the direct gaps of ZnSe and Zn0.56Cd0.44Se,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 1819–1824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. L.

H. -J.  Lamfers, A.  Meetsma, G. A.  Wiegers, J. L.  de Boer, “The crystal structure of some rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides,” J. Alloys and comp. 241, 34–39 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diwght, K.

V.  Marzik, R.  Kershaw, K.  Diwght, A.  Wold, “Photoelectronic properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 51, 170–175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dwight, K.

F. P.  Koffyberg, K.  Dwight, A.  Wold, “Interband transitions of semiconducting oxides determined from photoelectrolysis spectra,” Solid State Commun. 30, 433–437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Friemelt, K.

K.  Friemelt, M.-Ch.  Lux-Steiner, E.  Bucher, “Optical properties of the layered transition-metal-dichalcogenide ReS2: Anisotropy in the van der Waals plane,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5266–5268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Garriga, M.

P.  Lantenschlager, M.  Garriga, S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phy. Rev. B 35, 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, P.  Lautenschlager, M.  Garriga, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical points of CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2458–2469(1986).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. L. H.

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hang, Z.

Z.  Hang, D.  Yan, F. H.  Pollak, G. D.  Pettit, J. M.  Woodall, “Temperature dependence of the direct band gap of InxGa1-xAs (x=0.06 and 0.15),” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10546–10550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Hang, H.  Shen, Fred H.  Pollak, “Temperature dependence of the Eo and Eo+?0 gaps of InP up to 600°C,” Solid State Comm. 73, 15–18 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. W.

M.  Brorson, T. W.  Hansen, C. J. H.  Jacobsen, “Rhenium(IV) sulfide nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11582–11583 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanson, N. A.

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S.

S.  Harris, R. R.  Chianelli, “Catalysis by transition metal sulfides: The relation between calculated electronic trends and HDS activity,” J. Catal. 86, 400–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. H.

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, C. C.  Wu, “Polarization sensitive behavior of the band-edge transitions in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 5937–5944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, Z. H.  Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1098–1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Yen, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Photoreflectance study of the excitonic transitions of rhenium disulphide layer compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “In-plane anisotropy of the optical and electrical properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 layered crystals,” J. Alloys Comp. 317–318, 222–226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, P. C.  Liao, K. K.  Tiong, “Crystal structure and band-edge transitions of ReS2-xSex layered compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 1797–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, P. C.  Liao, “Absorption-edge anisotropy in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16130–16135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 ,” Solid State Commun. 103, 19–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, T. R.  Yang, K. K.  Tiong, “Optical absorption of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6380–6383 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. S.

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Yen, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Photoreflectance study of the excitonic transitions of rhenium disulphide layer compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “In-plane anisotropy of the optical and electrical properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 layered crystals,” J. Alloys Comp. 317–318, 222–226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, P. C.  Liao, K. K.  Tiong, “Crystal structure and band-edge transitions of ReS2-xSex layered compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 1797–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, P. C.  Liao, “Absorption-edge anisotropy in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16130–16135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, T. R.  Yang, K. K.  Tiong, “Optical absorption of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6380–6383 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 ,” Solid State Commun. 103, 19–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Y.  Chung, D. Y.  Lin, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of InP near the absorption edge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1850–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, C. J. H.

M.  Brorson, T. W.  Hansen, C. J. H.  Jacobsen, “Rhenium(IV) sulfide nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11582–11583 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jafrate, G. J.

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jarvis, N. L.

H. S.  Broadbent, L. H.  Slangh, N. L.  Jarvis, “Rhenium sulfides as liquid-phase hydrogenation catalysts. A comparison with Molybdenum sulfide and Cobalt polysulfide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1519–1523 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Jellinek, F.

J. C.  Wildervanck, F.  Jellinek, “The dichalcogenides of technetium and rhenium,” J. Less-Common Met. 24, 73–81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kean, A. H.

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kershaw, R.

V.  Marzik, R.  Kershaw, K.  Diwght, A.  Wold, “Photoelectronic properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 51, 170–175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. W.

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koffyberg, F. P.

F. P.  Koffyberg, K.  Dwight, A.  Wold, “Interband transitions of semiconducting oxides determined from photoelectrolysis spectra,” Solid State Commun. 30, 433–437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Krystek, W.

L.  Malikova, W.  Krystek, F. H.  Pollak, N.  Dai, A.  Cavus, M. C.  Tamargo, “Temperature dependence of the direct gaps of ZnSe and Zn0.56Cd0.44Se,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 1819–1824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lamfers, H. -J.

H. -J.  Lamfers, A.  Meetsma, G. A.  Wiegers, J. L.  de Boer, “The crystal structure of some rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides,” J. Alloys and comp. 241, 34–39 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lantenschlager, P.

P.  Lantenschlager, M.  Garriga, S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phy. Rev. B 35, 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lautenschlager, P.

S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, P.  Lautenschlager, M.  Garriga, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical points of CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2458–2469(1986).
[CrossRef]

Leand, J. K.

B. L.  Wheeler, J. K.  Leand, A. J.  Bard, “Semiconductor electrodes LX. photoelectrochemistry of p-ReS2 and p-ReSe2 in aqueous solutions,” J. Electrochem. Chem. 133, 358–361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, C. C.  Wu, “Polarization sensitive behavior of the band-edge transitions in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 5937–5944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, Z. H.  Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1098–1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitch, W.

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. C.

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, P. C.  Liao, K. K.  Tiong, “Crystal structure and band-edge transitions of ReS2-xSex layered compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 1797–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, P. C.  Liao, “Absorption-edge anisotropy in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16130–16135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 ,” Solid State Commun. 103, 19–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, T. R.  Yang, K. K.  Tiong, “Optical absorption of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6380–6383 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. Y.

S. Y.  Chung, D. Y.  Lin, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of InP near the absorption edge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1850–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Logothetidis, S.

P.  Lantenschlager, M.  Garriga, S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phy. Rev. B 35, 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, P.  Lautenschlager, M.  Garriga, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical points of CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2458–2469(1986).
[CrossRef]

Lux-Steiner, M.-Ch.

K.  Friemelt, M.-Ch.  Lux-Steiner, E.  Bucher, “Optical properties of the layered transition-metal-dichalcogenide ReS2: Anisotropy in the van der Waals plane,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5266–5268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Malikova, L.

L.  Malikova, W.  Krystek, F. H.  Pollak, N.  Dai, A.  Cavus, M. C.  Tamargo, “Temperature dependence of the direct gaps of ZnSe and Zn0.56Cd0.44Se,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 1819–1824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marzik, V.

V.  Marzik, R.  Kershaw, K.  Diwght, A.  Wold, “Photoelectronic properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 51, 170–175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meetsma, A.

H. -J.  Lamfers, A.  Meetsma, G. A.  Wiegers, J. L.  de Boer, “The crystal structure of some rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides,” J. Alloys and comp. 241, 34–39 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnel, K. P.

K. P.  O’Donnel, X  Chen, “Temperature dependence of semiconductor band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2924–2926 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pettit, G. D.

Z.  Hang, D.  Yan, F. H.  Pollak, G. D.  Pettit, J. M.  Woodall, “Temperature dependence of the direct band gap of InxGa1-xAs (x=0.06 and 0.15),” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10546–10550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, F. H.

L.  Malikova, W.  Krystek, F. H.  Pollak, N.  Dai, A.  Cavus, M. C.  Tamargo, “Temperature dependence of the direct gaps of ZnSe and Zn0.56Cd0.44Se,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 1819–1824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. H.  Pollak, H.  Shen, “Modulation Spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surface/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 10, 275–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Hang, D.  Yan, F. H.  Pollak, G. D.  Pettit, J. M.  Woodall, “Temperature dependence of the direct band gap of InxGa1-xAs (x=0.06 and 0.15),” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10546–10550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, Fred H.

Z.  Hang, H.  Shen, Fred H.  Pollak, “Temperature dependence of the Eo and Eo+?0 gaps of InP up to 600°C,” Solid State Comm. 73, 15–18 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, H.

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

F. H.  Pollak, H.  Shen, “Modulation Spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surface/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 10, 275–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z.  Hang, H.  Shen, Fred H.  Pollak, “Temperature dependence of the Eo and Eo+?0 gaps of InP up to 600°C,” Solid State Comm. 73, 15–18 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Slangh, L. H.

H. S.  Broadbent, L. H.  Slangh, N. L.  Jarvis, “Rhenium sulfides as liquid-phase hydrogenation catalysts. A comparison with Molybdenum sulfide and Cobalt polysulfide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1519–1523 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, J.

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stroscio, M.

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tamargo, M. C.

L.  Malikova, W.  Krystek, F. H.  Pollak, N.  Dai, A.  Cavus, M. C.  Tamargo, “Temperature dependence of the direct gaps of ZnSe and Zn0.56Cd0.44Se,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 1819–1824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Terrones, H.

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terrones, M.

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiong, K. K.

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Yen, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Photoreflectance study of the excitonic transitions of rhenium disulphide layer compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “In-plane anisotropy of the optical and electrical properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 layered crystals,” J. Alloys Comp. 317–318, 222–226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, P. C.  Liao, K. K.  Tiong, “Crystal structure and band-edge transitions of ReS2-xSex layered compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 1797–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, P. C.  Liao, “Absorption-edge anisotropy in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16130–16135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, T. R.  Yang, K. K.  Tiong, “Optical absorption of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6380–6383 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 ,” Solid State Commun. 103, 19–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Y.  Chung, D. Y.  Lin, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of InP near the absorption edge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1850–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Varshni, Y. P.

Y. P.  Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34, 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, B. L.

B. L.  Wheeler, J. K.  Leand, A. J.  Bard, “Semiconductor electrodes LX. photoelectrochemistry of p-ReS2 and p-ReSe2 in aqueous solutions,” J. Electrochem. Chem. 133, 358–361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wiegers, G. A.

H. -J.  Lamfers, A.  Meetsma, G. A.  Wiegers, J. L.  de Boer, “The crystal structure of some rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides,” J. Alloys and comp. 241, 34–39 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wildervanck, J. C.

J. C.  Wildervanck, F.  Jellinek, “The dichalcogenides of technetium and rhenium,” J. Less-Common Met. 24, 73–81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. A.

J. A.  Wilson, A. D.  Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural Properties,” Adv. Phys. 18, 193–335 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wold, A.

V.  Marzik, R.  Kershaw, K.  Diwght, A.  Wold, “Photoelectronic properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 51, 170–175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. P.  Koffyberg, K.  Dwight, A.  Wold, “Interband transitions of semiconducting oxides determined from photoelectrolysis spectra,” Solid State Commun. 30, 433–437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Woodall, J. M.

Z.  Hang, D.  Yan, F. H.  Pollak, G. D.  Pettit, J. M.  Woodall, “Temperature dependence of the direct band gap of InxGa1-xAs (x=0.06 and 0.15),” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10546–10550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, C. C.  Wu, “Polarization sensitive behavior of the band-edge transitions in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 5937–5944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, D.

Z.  Hang, D.  Yan, F. H.  Pollak, G. D.  Pettit, J. M.  Woodall, “Temperature dependence of the direct band gap of InxGa1-xAs (x=0.06 and 0.15),” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10546–10550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. R.

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, T. R.  Yang, K. K.  Tiong, “Optical absorption of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6380–6383 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yen, P. C.

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Yen, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Photoreflectance study of the excitonic transitions of rhenium disulphide layer compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoffe, A. D.

J. A.  Wilson, A. D.  Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural Properties,” Adv. Phys. 18, 193–335 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys.

J. A.  Wilson, A. D.  Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural Properties,” Adv. Phys. 18, 193–335 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. P.  O’Donnel, X  Chen, “Temperature dependence of semiconductor band gaps,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2924–2926 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H.  Qiang, F. H.  Pollak, C. M.  Sotomayor Torres, W.  Leitch, A. H.  Kean, M.  Stroscio, G. J.  Jafrate, K. W.  Kim, “Size dependence of the thermal broadening of the exciton linewidth in GaAs/Ga0.7Al0.3As single quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1411–1413 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys and comp.

H. -J.  Lamfers, A.  Meetsma, G. A.  Wiegers, J. L.  de Boer, “The crystal structure of some rhenium and technetium dichalcogenides,” J. Alloys and comp. 241, 34–39 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Comp.

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “In-plane anisotropy of the optical and electrical properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 layered crystals,” J. Alloys Comp. 317–318, 222–226 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

H. S.  Broadbent, L. H.  Slangh, N. L.  Jarvis, “Rhenium sulfides as liquid-phase hydrogenation catalysts. A comparison with Molybdenum sulfide and Cobalt polysulfide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 1519–1523 (1954).
[CrossRef]

K. S.  Coleman, J.  Sloan, N. A.  Hanson, G.  Brown, G. P.  Clancy, M.  Terrones, H.  Terrones, M. L. H.  Green, “The formation of ReS2 inorganic Fullerene-like structures containing Re4 parallelogram units and metal-metal bonds,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11580–11581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Brorson, T. W.  Hansen, C. J. H.  Jacobsen, “Rhenium(IV) sulfide nanotubes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 11582–11583 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, T. R.  Yang, K. K.  Tiong, “Optical absorption of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6380–6383 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.  Friemelt, M.-Ch.  Lux-Steiner, E.  Bucher, “Optical properties of the layered transition-metal-dichalcogenide ReS2: Anisotropy in the van der Waals plane,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5266–5268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Catal.

S.  Harris, R. R.  Chianelli, “Catalysis by transition metal sulfides: The relation between calculated electronic trends and HDS activity,” J. Catal. 86, 400–412 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Chem.

B. L.  Wheeler, J. K.  Leand, A. J.  Bard, “Semiconductor electrodes LX. photoelectrochemistry of p-ReS2 and p-ReSe2 in aqueous solutions,” J. Electrochem. Chem. 133, 358–361 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Less-Common Met.

J. C.  Wildervanck, F.  Jellinek, “The dichalcogenides of technetium and rhenium,” J. Less-Common Met. 24, 73–81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, P. C.  Liao, K. K.  Tiong, “Crystal structure and band-edge transitions of ReS2-xSex layered compounds,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 1797–1804 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, C. C.  Wu, “Polarization sensitive behavior of the band-edge transitions in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 5937–5944 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem.

V.  Marzik, R.  Kershaw, K.  Diwght, A.  Wold, “Photoelectronic properties of ReS2 and ReSe2 single crystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 51, 170–175 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. R

F. H.  Pollak, H.  Shen, “Modulation Spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surface/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 10, 275–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phy. Rev. B

P.  Lantenschlager, M.  Garriga, S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, “Interband critical points of GaAs and their temperature dependence,” Phy. Rev. B 35, 9174–9189 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

Z.  Hang, D.  Yan, F. H.  Pollak, G. D.  Pettit, J. M.  Woodall, “Temperature dependence of the direct band gap of InxGa1-xAs (x=0.06 and 0.15),” Phys. Rev. B 44, 10546–10550 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L.  Malikova, W.  Krystek, F. H.  Pollak, N.  Dai, A.  Cavus, M. C.  Tamargo, “Temperature dependence of the direct gaps of ZnSe and Zn0.56Cd0.44Se,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 1819–1824 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S.  Logothetidis, M.  Cardona, P.  Lautenschlager, M.  Garriga, “Temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical points of CdSe,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 2458–2469(1986).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Yen, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Photoreflectance study of the excitonic transitions of rhenium disulphide layer compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 245207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. H.  Ho, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, P. C.  Liao, “Absorption-edge anisotropy in ReS2 and ReSe2 layered semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 16130–16135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Physica

Y. P.  Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica 34, 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. H.  Ho, H. W.  Lee, Z. H.  Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1098–1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

S. Y.  Chung, D. Y.  Lin, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of InP near the absorption edge,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1850–1856 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Comm.

Z.  Hang, H.  Shen, Fred H.  Pollak, “Temperature dependence of the Eo and Eo+?0 gaps of InP up to 600°C,” Solid State Comm. 73, 15–18 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

C. H.  Ho, P. C.  Liao, Y. S.  Huang, K. K.  Tiong, “Piezoreflectance study of the band-edge excitons of ReS2 ,” Solid State Commun. 103, 19–23 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. P.  Koffyberg, K.  Dwight, A.  Wold, “Interband transitions of semiconducting oxides determined from photoelectrolysis spectra,” Solid State Commun. 30, 433–437 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. E.  Aspnes, in Handbook on Semiconductors, edited by M.  Balkanski (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1980) 109.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The crystal morphologies of the as-grown layer-type and tetragonal ReS2 single crystals. The structural unit cells for both triclinic layer and tetragonal structure are included for comparison.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Polarized thermoreflectance spectra of (a) layer-type ReS2 [denoted as ReS2(L)] and (b) tetragonal ReS2 [denoted as ReS2(T)] at 25K. The dashed lines are the experimental results and the solid curves are least-square fits to a derivative Lorentzian line-shape function which yield transition energies indicated by arrows.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temperature-dependent PTR spectra of (a) ReS2 (L) and (b) ReS2 (T) with Eb and Eb polarizations at various temperatures between 25 and 300 K. The dashed lines and solid curves are respectively the experimental PTR spectra of Eb and Eb polarizations while the hollow-circle lines are least-square fits to Eq. (1).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temperature dependence of the transition energies of layered and tetragonal ReS2 with representative error bars. The dashed curves are least-squares fits to Eq. (2), the solid lines are least-squares fits to Eq. (3) and the hollow-square curves are least-squares fits to Eq. (4).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Temperature dependent spectral linewidths of the interband transitions E1ex, E2ex, Ed1, and Ed2 for ReS2 (L) and ReS2 (T). Representative error bars are shown. The full curves are least-squares fits to Eq. (5).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Values of fitting parameters of Varshni equation and an expression proposed by O’Donnel & Chen which describe the temperature dependence of the transition energies for layer-type and tetragonal ReS2 by PTR measurements. The values of fitting parameters for the temperature dependence of the indirect gap of layered ReS2 are included for comparison.

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Table 2. Values of the Bose-Einstein type fitting parameters which describe the temperature dependence of the transition energies and band gaps of ReS2(L), ReS2(T), CdSe, GaAs, and InP.

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Table 3. Values of the parameters that describe the temperature dependence of the broadening function of the transition energies and band gaps of ReS2(L), ReS2(T), CdSe, GaAs, and InP.

Equations (5)

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Δ R R = Re [ i = 1 n A i e j ϕ i ( E E i + j Γ i ) 2 ] ,
E i ( T ) = E i ( 0 ) α T 2 ( T + β )
E i oc ( T ) = E i oc ( 0 ) S Ω [ coth ( Ω k T ) 1 ]
E i ( T ) = E iB 2 · a iB [ exp ( Θ iB T ) 1 ] ,
Γ i ( T ) = Γ i 0 + Γ iLO [ exp ( Θ iLO T ) 1 ] ,

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