Abstract

We present a novel method to produce a PMMA-quantum-dot (QD) composite fabricated by pre-polymerization of PMMA and dispersing commercially available colloidal semiconductor QDs. The QDs are stabilized in rapidly formed oligomer matrices, and the complete polymerization of the PMMA-QD composite is achieved by commonly used polymerization. The properties of the PMMA-QD composite are measured and compared with the QDs in colloidal solution. Patterning of the PMMA-QD composite by direct write electron beam shows its promising applications in optoelectronics.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2004 (1)

Y.  Wang, Z.-Y.  Tang, M. A.  Correa-Duarte, I.  Pastoriza-Santos, M.  Giersig, N. A.  Kotov, L. M.  Liz-Marza, “Mechanism of strong luminescence photoactivation of citrate-stabilized water-soluble nanoparticles with CdSe cores,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15461–5469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

M.  Jones, J.  Nedeljkovic, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, G.  Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Wang, Z.  Tang, M. A.  Correa-Duarte, L. M.  Liz-Marza, N. A.  Kotov, “Multicolor luminescence patterning by photoactivation of semiconductor nanoparticle films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 2830–2831 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V.  Kershaw, M.  Harrison, M. G.  Burt, “Putting nanocrystals to work: from solutions to devices,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 331–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.  Zhang, Z.  Cui, Y.  Wang, K.  Zhang, X.  Ji, C.  Lu, B.  Yang, M.  Gao, “From water-woluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable Surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15, 777–780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.  Pang, W.  Nakagawa, Y.  Fainman “Fabrication of 2-D photonic crystals with controlled defects using multiple exposures and direct-write,” App. Opt. 42, 5450–5456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S.  Hoeppener, R.  Maoz, S.R.  Cohen, L.F.  Chi, H.  Fuchs, J.  Sagiv, “Metal nanoparticles, nanowires, and contact electrodes self-assembled on patterned monolayer templates - a bottom-up chemical approach,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1036–1041 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. G. J. H. M.  van Sark, P. L. T. M.  Frederix, D. J.  Van den Heuvel, H. C.  Gerritsen, A. A.  Bol, J. N. J.  van Lingen, C.  de Mello Donega, A.  Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M.  Campbell, D. N.  Sharp, M. T.  Harrison, R. G.  Denning, A. J.  Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.  Lee, V. C.  Sundar, J. R.  Heine, M. G.  Bawendi, K. F.  Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I.  Klimov, A. A.  Mikhailovsky, Su  Xu, A.  Malko, J. A.  Hollingsworth, C. A.  Leatherdale, H.-J.  Eisler, M. G.  Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A.  Martucci, P.  Innocenzi, J.  Fick, J.D.  Mackenzie, “Zirconia-ormosil flms doped with PbS quantum dots,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 55–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M.  Bruchez, M.  Moronne, P.  Gin, S.  Weiss, A. P.  Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological babels,” Science, 281 2013–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.  Juodkazis, E.  Bernstein, J.C.  Plenet, C.  Bovier, J.  Dumas, J.  Mugnier, J.V.  Vaitkus, “Optical properties of CdS nanocrystallites embedded in (Si0.2Ti0.8)O2 sol-gel waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 148, 242–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. C.  Schlamp, X. G.  Peng, A. P.  Alivisatos, “Improved efficiencies in light emitting diodes made with CdSe(CdS) core/shell type nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5837–5842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D.E.  Fogg, L.H.  Radzilowski, R.  Blanski, R.R.  Schrock, E.L.  Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot-polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules 30, 17–426 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. A.  Hines, P.  Guyot-Sionnest, “Synthesis and characterization of strongly luminescing ZnS-capped CdSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 468–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

V.  Colvin, M.  Schlamp, A.  Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370 354–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. M.  Petroff, S. P.  DenBaars, “MBE and MOCVD growth and properties of self-assembling quantum dot arrays in III–V semiconductor structures,” Superlattices and Microstructures 15, 15–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. B.  Murray, D. J.  Norris, M. G.  Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. J.  Eaglesham, M.  Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski-Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943–1946 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Y.  Wang, A.  Suna, W.  Mahler, R.  Kasowski, “PbS in polymers. From molecules to bulk solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 7315–7322 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. A.  Reed, R. T.  Bate, K.  Bradshaw, W. M.  Duncan, W. R.  Frensley, J. W.  Lee, H. D.  Shih, “Spatial quantization in GaAs-AlGaAs multiple quantum dots,” J.Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 358–360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A.I.  Ekimov, A.L.  Efros, A.A.  Onushchenko, “Quantum size effect in semiconductor microcrystals,” Solid State Comminications 56, 921–924 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A.

V.  Colvin, M.  Schlamp, A.  Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370 354–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M.  Bruchez, M.  Moronne, P.  Gin, S.  Weiss, A. P.  Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological babels,” Science, 281 2013–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C.  Schlamp, X. G.  Peng, A. P.  Alivisatos, “Improved efficiencies in light emitting diodes made with CdSe(CdS) core/shell type nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5837–5842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bate, R. T.

M. A.  Reed, R. T.  Bate, K.  Bradshaw, W. M.  Duncan, W. R.  Frensley, J. W.  Lee, H. D.  Shih, “Spatial quantization in GaAs-AlGaAs multiple quantum dots,” J.Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 358–360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I.  Klimov, A. A.  Mikhailovsky, Su  Xu, A.  Malko, J. A.  Hollingsworth, C. A.  Leatherdale, H.-J.  Eisler, M. G.  Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.  Lee, V. C.  Sundar, J. R.  Heine, M. G.  Bawendi, K. F.  Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. B.  Murray, D. J.  Norris, M. G.  Bawendi, “Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706–8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, E.

S.  Juodkazis, E.  Bernstein, J.C.  Plenet, C.  Bovier, J.  Dumas, J.  Mugnier, J.V.  Vaitkus, “Optical properties of CdS nanocrystallites embedded in (Si0.2Ti0.8)O2 sol-gel waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 148, 242–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bian, F.-L.

M.-Y.  Gao, Y.  Yang, B-  Yang, F.-L.  Bian, J.-C.  Shen, “Synthesis of PbS nanoparticles in polymer matrices,” Chem. Comm. 2779–2780, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blanski, R.

D.E.  Fogg, L.H.  Radzilowski, R.  Blanski, R.R.  Schrock, E.L.  Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot-polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules 30, 17–426 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bol, A. A.

W. G. J. H. M.  van Sark, P. L. T. M.  Frederix, D. J.  Van den Heuvel, H. C.  Gerritsen, A. A.  Bol, J. N. J.  van Lingen, C.  de Mello Donega, A.  Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bovier, C.

S.  Juodkazis, E.  Bernstein, J.C.  Plenet, C.  Bovier, J.  Dumas, J.  Mugnier, J.V.  Vaitkus, “Optical properties of CdS nanocrystallites embedded in (Si0.2Ti0.8)O2 sol-gel waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 148, 242–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, K.

M. A.  Reed, R. T.  Bate, K.  Bradshaw, W. M.  Duncan, W. R.  Frensley, J. W.  Lee, H. D.  Shih, “Spatial quantization in GaAs-AlGaAs multiple quantum dots,” J.Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 358–360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bruchez, M.

M.  Bruchez, M.  Moronne, P.  Gin, S.  Weiss, A. P.  Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological babels,” Science, 281 2013–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burt, M. G.

S. V.  Kershaw, M.  Harrison, M. G.  Burt, “Putting nanocrystals to work: from solutions to devices,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361, 331–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

M.  Campbell, D. N.  Sharp, M. T.  Harrison, R. G.  Denning, A. J.  Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, M.

D. J.  Eaglesham, M.  Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski-Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943–1946 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

L.  Pang, L.-R  Guo, B.  Chen, “polymerized PMMA replication of microoptical elements,” in Micro-optical Technologies for Measurement, Sensors and Microsystems II and Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies and Applications , O. M.  Parriaux, B.  Culshaw, M.  Breidne, E. B.  Kley, eds., Proc. SPIE 3099, 115–122 (1997).

Chi, L.F.

S.  Hoeppener, R.  Maoz, S.R.  Cohen, L.F.  Chi, H.  Fuchs, J.  Sagiv, “Metal nanoparticles, nanowires, and contact electrodes self-assembled on patterned monolayer templates - a bottom-up chemical approach,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1036–1041 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, S.R.

S.  Hoeppener, R.  Maoz, S.R.  Cohen, L.F.  Chi, H.  Fuchs, J.  Sagiv, “Metal nanoparticles, nanowires, and contact electrodes self-assembled on patterned monolayer templates - a bottom-up chemical approach,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1036–1041 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V.

V.  Colvin, M.  Schlamp, A.  Alivisatos, “Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer,” Nature 370 354–357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Correa-Duarte, M. A.

Y.  Wang, Z.-Y.  Tang, M. A.  Correa-Duarte, I.  Pastoriza-Santos, M.  Giersig, N. A.  Kotov, L. M.  Liz-Marza, “Mechanism of strong luminescence photoactivation of citrate-stabilized water-soluble nanoparticles with CdSe cores,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15461–5469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Wang, Z.  Tang, M. A.  Correa-Duarte, L. M.  Liz-Marza, N. A.  Kotov, “Multicolor luminescence patterning by photoactivation of semiconductor nanoparticle films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 2830–2831 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Z.

H.  Zhang, Z.  Cui, Y.  Wang, K.  Zhang, X.  Ji, C.  Lu, B.  Yang, M.  Gao, “From water-woluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable Surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15, 777–780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Mello Donega, C.

W. G. J. H. M.  van Sark, P. L. T. M.  Frederix, D. J.  Van den Heuvel, H. C.  Gerritsen, A. A.  Bol, J. N. J.  van Lingen, C.  de Mello Donega, A.  Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

P. M.  Petroff, S. P.  DenBaars, “MBE and MOCVD growth and properties of self-assembling quantum dot arrays in III–V semiconductor structures,” Superlattices and Microstructures 15, 15–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Denning, R. G.

M.  Campbell, D. N.  Sharp, M. T.  Harrison, R. G.  Denning, A. J.  Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumas, J.

S.  Juodkazis, E.  Bernstein, J.C.  Plenet, C.  Bovier, J.  Dumas, J.  Mugnier, J.V.  Vaitkus, “Optical properties of CdS nanocrystallites embedded in (Si0.2Ti0.8)O2 sol-gel waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 148, 242–248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, W. M.

M. A.  Reed, R. T.  Bate, K.  Bradshaw, W. M.  Duncan, W. R.  Frensley, J. W.  Lee, H. D.  Shih, “Spatial quantization in GaAs-AlGaAs multiple quantum dots,” J.Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 358–360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Eaglesham, D. J.

D. J.  Eaglesham, M.  Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski-Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943–1946 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Efros, A.L.

A.I.  Ekimov, A.L.  Efros, A.A.  Onushchenko, “Quantum size effect in semiconductor microcrystals,” Solid State Comminications 56, 921–924 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

V. I.  Klimov, A. A.  Mikhailovsky, Su  Xu, A.  Malko, J. A.  Hollingsworth, C. A.  Leatherdale, H.-J.  Eisler, M. G.  Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290, 314–317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekimov, A.I.

A.I.  Ekimov, A.L.  Efros, A.A.  Onushchenko, “Quantum size effect in semiconductor microcrystals,” Solid State Comminications 56, 921–924 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ellingson, R. J.

M.  Jones, J.  Nedeljkovic, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, G.  Rumbles, “Photoenhancement of luminescence in colloidal CdSe quantum dot solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 11346–11352 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

L.  Pang, W.  Nakagawa, Y.  Fainman “Fabrication of 2-D photonic crystals with controlled defects using multiple exposures and direct-write,” App. Opt. 42, 5450–5456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fick, J.

A.  Martucci, P.  Innocenzi, J.  Fick, J.D.  Mackenzie, “Zirconia-ormosil flms doped with PbS quantum dots,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244, 55–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fogg, D.E.

D.E.  Fogg, L.H.  Radzilowski, R.  Blanski, R.R.  Schrock, E.L.  Thomas, “Fabrication of quantum dot-polymer composites: phosphine-functionalized block copolymers as passivating hosts for cadmium selenide nanoclusters,” Macromolecules 30, 17–426 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frederix, P. L. T. M.

W. G. J. H. M.  van Sark, P. L. T. M.  Frederix, D. J.  Van den Heuvel, H. C.  Gerritsen, A. A.  Bol, J. N. J.  van Lingen, C.  de Mello Donega, A.  Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8281–8284 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frensley, W. R.

M. A.  Reed, R. T.  Bate, K.  Bradshaw, W. M.  Duncan, W. R.  Frensley, J. W.  Lee, H. D.  Shih, “Spatial quantization in GaAs-AlGaAs multiple quantum dots,” J.Vac. Sci. Technol. B 4, 358–360 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.

S.  Hoeppener, R.  Maoz, S.R.  Cohen, L.F.  Chi, H.  Fuchs, J.  Sagiv, “Metal nanoparticles, nanowires, and contact electrodes self-assembled on patterned monolayer templates - a bottom-up chemical approach,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1036–1041 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M.

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Y.  Wang, Z.-Y.  Tang, M. A.  Correa-Duarte, I.  Pastoriza-Santos, M.  Giersig, N. A.  Kotov, L. M.  Liz-Marza, “Mechanism of strong luminescence photoactivation of citrate-stabilized water-soluble nanoparticles with CdSe cores,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15461–5469 (2004).
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J.  Lee, V. C.  Sundar, J. R.  Heine, M. G.  Bawendi, K. F.  Jensen, “Full color emission from II–VI semiconductor quantum dot-polymer composites,” Adv. Mater. 12, 1102–1105 (2000).
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Y.  Wang, Z.  Tang, M. A.  Correa-Duarte, L. M.  Liz-Marza, N. A.  Kotov, “Multicolor luminescence patterning by photoactivation of semiconductor nanoparticle films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 2830–2831 (2003).
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Y.  Wang, Z.-Y.  Tang, M. A.  Correa-Duarte, I.  Pastoriza-Santos, M.  Giersig, N. A.  Kotov, L. M.  Liz-Marza, “Mechanism of strong luminescence photoactivation of citrate-stabilized water-soluble nanoparticles with CdSe cores,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15461–5469 (2004).
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M.  Campbell, D. N.  Sharp, M. T.  Harrison, R. G.  Denning, A. J.  Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404, 53–56, (2000).
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S.  Juodkazis, E.  Bernstein, J.C.  Plenet, C.  Bovier, J.  Dumas, J.  Mugnier, J.V.  Vaitkus, “Optical properties of CdS nanocrystallites embedded in (Si0.2Ti0.8)O2 sol-gel waveguide,” Opt. Comm. 148, 242–248 (1998).
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W. G. J. H. M.  van Sark, P. L. T. M.  Frederix, D. J.  Van den Heuvel, H. C.  Gerritsen, A. A.  Bol, J. N. J.  van Lingen, C.  de Mello Donega, A.  Meijerink, “Photooxidation and photobleaching of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots probed by room-temperature time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B. 105, 8281–8284 (2001).
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Y.  Wang, Z.  Tang, M. A.  Correa-Duarte, L. M.  Liz-Marza, N. A.  Kotov, “Multicolor luminescence patterning by photoactivation of semiconductor nanoparticle films,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 2830–2831 (2003).
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L.  Jacak, P.  Hawrylak, A.  Wojs, Quantum Dots (Springer, Germany, 1998).

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H.  Zhang, Z.  Cui, Y.  Wang, K.  Zhang, X.  Ji, C.  Lu, B.  Yang, M.  Gao, “From water-woluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable Surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15, 777–780 (2003).
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G. T.  Paloczi, Y.  Huang, A.  Yariv, S.  Mookherjea, “Polymeric Mach-Zehnder interferometer using serially coupled microring resonators,” Opt. Express, 11, 2666–2671 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2666
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H.  Zhang, Z.  Cui, Y.  Wang, K.  Zhang, X.  Ji, C.  Lu, B.  Yang, M.  Gao, “From water-woluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable Surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15, 777–780 (2003).
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H.  Zhang, Z.  Cui, Y.  Wang, K.  Zhang, X.  Ji, C.  Lu, B.  Yang, M.  Gao, “From water-woluble CdTe nanocrystals to fluorescent nanocrystal-polymer transparent composites using polymerizable Surfactants,” Adv. Mater. 15, 777–780 (2003).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of the pre-polymerazation of MMA-QDs composite and the direct polymerization; (a) top veiw of the pre-polymerization (right) and direct polymerization (left); the close-up of the top surface of the direct polymerization was taken under a background; (b) sideviews of the pre-polymerization (right) and direct polymerization (left); the latter shows nonuniformity in the vertical direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption and PL spectra of QDs in (a) toluene solution and (b) PMMA-QD composite, where the dash line shows the absorption spectrum of a 1 mm thick pure PMMA slide.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scanning electron microscopy image of PMMA-QD composite structure by directly patterning the composite with electron beam; (a) a composite grating with 1.5 µm period and features of 200 and 300nm, (b) magnified view of (a).

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