Abstract

This study demonstrates the use of photonic crystal directional couplers to separate light of wavelengths 1.31 and 1.55µm. The photonic crystal structure consists of InAlGaAs nano-rods arranged in square lattice. The coupling length of the light in the directional coupler at a wavelength of 1.31µm was designed to be four times greater than that at 1.55µm. This behavior helps in designing devices to split the two wavelengths. The devices are fabricated by e-beam lithography and conventional photolithography. The measurement results confirm that 1.31µm/1.55µm directional couplers can be realized in PC structures formed by nano-rods.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. C.  Chen, H. D.  Chien, P. G.  Luan, “Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6188–6190 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A.  Lupu, E.  Cassan, S.  Laval, L.  El Melhaoui, P.  Lyan, J. M.  Fedeli, “Experimental evidence for superprism phenomena in SOI photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 12, 5690–5696 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-23-5690
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. B.  Chung, S. W.  Hong, “Wavelength demultiplexers based on the superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1549–1551 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B.  D’Urso, O.  Painter, J.  O’Brien, T.  Tombrello, A.  Yariv, A.  Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T.  Baba, A.  Motegi, T.  Iwai, N.  Fukaya, Y.  Watanabe, A.  Sakai, “Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743–752 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. S.  Lo, M. S.  Wang, C. C.  Chen, “Semiconductor Hollow Optical Waveguides formed by Omni-Directional Reflectors,” Opt. Express (to be published).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. I.  Borel, L. H.  Frandsen, M.  Thorhauge, A.  Harpøth, Y. X.  Zhuang, M.  Kristensen, “Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light,” Opt. Express 11, 1757–1762 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M.  Tokushima, H.  Yamada, “Photonic crystal line defect waveguide directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 37,1454–1455 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F.  Cuesta-Soto, A.  Martínez, J.  García, F.  Ramos, P.  Sanchis, J.  Blasco, J.  Martí, “All-Optical switching structure based on a photonic crystal directional coupler,” Opt. Express 12, 161–167 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-161
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A.  Sharkawy, S.  Shi, D. W.  Prather, “Electro-optical switching using coupled photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 10, 1048–1059 (2002). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-161
    [PubMed]
  16. F.  Cuesta, A.  Griol, A.  Martínez, J.  Martí, “Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal directional coupler at microwave,” Electron. Lett. 39, 455–456 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. L.  Chuang, “Physics of optoelectronic devices,” eds. (Wiley Interscience, New York, NY, 1995), pp. 708–709.
  18. S.  Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1-xAs Material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1–R29 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (4)

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. C.  Chen, H. D.  Chien, P. G.  Luan, “Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6188–6190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F.  Cuesta-Soto, A.  Martínez, J.  García, F.  Ramos, P.  Sanchis, J.  Blasco, J.  Martí, “All-Optical switching structure based on a photonic crystal directional coupler,” Opt. Express 12, 161–167 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-161
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Lupu, E.  Cassan, S.  Laval, L.  El Melhaoui, P.  Lyan, J. M.  Fedeli, “Experimental evidence for superprism phenomena in SOI photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 12, 5690–5696 (2004). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-23-5690
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

P. I.  Borel, L. H.  Frandsen, M.  Thorhauge, A.  Harpøth, Y. X.  Zhuang, M.  Kristensen, “Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light,” Opt. Express 11, 1757–1762 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-15-1757
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Thorhauge, L. H.  Frandsen, P. I.  Borel, “Efficent photonic crystal directional couplers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1525–1527 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.  Cuesta, A.  Griol, A.  Martínez, J.  Martí, “Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal directional coupler at microwave,” Electron. Lett. 39, 455–456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

K. B.  Chung, S. W.  Hong, “Wavelength demultiplexers based on the superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1549–1551 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T.  Baba, A.  Motegi, T.  Iwai, N.  Fukaya, Y.  Watanabe, A.  Sakai, “Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743–752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A.  Sharkawy, S.  Shi, D. W.  Prather, “Electro-optical switching using coupled photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 10, 1048–1059 (2002). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-1-161
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Tokushima, H.  Yamada, “Photonic crystal line defect waveguide directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 37,1454–1455 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P.  Halevi, A. A.  Krokhin, J.  Arriaga, “Photonic crystals as optical components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2725–2727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B.  D’Urso, O.  Painter, J.  O’Brien, T.  Tombrello, A.  Yariv, A.  Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S.  Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1-xAs Material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1–R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S.  Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1-xAs Material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1–R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

P.  Halevi, A. A.  Krokhin, J.  Arriaga, “Photonic crystals as optical components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2725–2727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, K.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Augustin, M.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T.  Baba, A.  Motegi, T.  Iwai, N.  Fukaya, Y.  Watanabe, A.  Sakai, “Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743–752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, J.

Borel, P. I.

Carlsson, N.

N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassan, E.

Chen, C. C.

C. C.  Chen, H. D.  Chien, P. G.  Luan, “Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6188–6190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S.  Lo, M. S.  Wang, C. C.  Chen, “Semiconductor Hollow Optical Waveguides formed by Omni-Directional Reflectors,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Chien, H. D.

C. C.  Chen, H. D.  Chien, P. G.  Luan, “Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6188–6190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. O

Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L.  Chuang, “Physics of optoelectronic devices,” eds. (Wiley Interscience, New York, NY, 1995), pp. 708–709.

Chung, K. B.

K. B.  Chung, S. W.  Hong, “Wavelength demultiplexers based on the superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1549–1551 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cuesta, F.

F.  Cuesta, A.  Griol, A.  Martínez, J.  Martí, “Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal directional coupler at microwave,” Electron. Lett. 39, 455–456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cuesta-Soto, F.

D’Urso, B.

B.  D’Urso, O.  Painter, J.  O’Brien, T.  Tombrello, A.  Yariv, A.  Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

El Melhaoui, L.

Etrich, C.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Frandsen, L. H.

Fuchs, H.-J.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fukaya, N.

T.  Baba, A.  Motegi, T.  Iwai, N.  Fukaya, Y.  Watanabe, A.  Sakai, “Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743–752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

García, J.

Griol, A.

F.  Cuesta, A.  Griol, A.  Martínez, J.  Martí, “Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal directional coupler at microwave,” Electron. Lett. 39, 455–456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Halevi, P.

P.  Halevi, A. A.  Krokhin, J.  Arriaga, “Photonic crystals as optical components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2725–2727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harpøth, A.

Hong, S. W.

K. B.  Chung, S. W.  Hong, “Wavelength demultiplexers based on the superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1549–1551 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, N.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iliew, R.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishida, K.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, T.

T.  Baba, A.  Motegi, T.  Iwai, N.  Fukaya, Y.  Watanabe, A.  Sakai, “Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743–752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, N.

N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kley, E.-B.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

Krokhin, A. A.

P.  Halevi, A. A.  Krokhin, J.  Arriaga, “Photonic crystals as optical components,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2725–2727 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Lederer, F.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, S. S.

S. S.  Lo, M. S.  Wang, C. C.  Chen, “Semiconductor Hollow Optical Waveguides formed by Omni-Directional Reflectors,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Luan, P. G.

C. C.  Chen, H. D.  Chien, P. G.  Luan, “Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6188–6190 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lupu, A.

Lyan, P.

Martí, J.

Martínez, A.

Maruyama, T.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, K.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Motegi, A.

T.  Baba, A.  Motegi, T.  Iwai, N.  Fukaya, Y.  Watanabe, A.  Sakai, “Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743–752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, H.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J.

B.  D’Urso, O.  Painter, J.  O’Brien, T.  Tombrello, A.  Yariv, A.  Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

B.  D’Urso, O.  Painter, J.  O’Brien, T.  Tombrello, A.  Yariv, A.  Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Ramos, F.

Roh, Y. G.

Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, A.

T.  Baba, A.  Motegi, T.  Iwai, N.  Fukaya, Y.  Watanabe, A.  Sakai, “Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743–752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

Schelle, D.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

B.  D’Urso, O.  Painter, J.  O’Brien, T.  Tombrello, A.  Yariv, A.  Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sharkawy, A.

Shi, S.

Sugimoto, Y.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, M. G.

Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takemori, T.

N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thorhauge, M.

Tokushima, M.

M.  Tokushima, H.  Yamada, “Photonic crystal line defect waveguide directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 37,1454–1455 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tombrello, T.

B.  D’Urso, O.  Painter, J.  O’Brien, T.  Tombrello, A.  Yariv, A.  Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

M.  Augustin, H.-J.  Fuchs, D.  Schelle, E.-B.  Kley, S.  Nolte, A.  Tunnermann, R.  Iliew, C.  Etrich, U.  Peschel, F.  Lederer, “High transmission and single-mode operation in low-index-contrast photonic crystal waveguide devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 663–665 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. S.

S. S.  Lo, M. S.  Wang, C. C.  Chen, “Semiconductor Hollow Optical Waveguides formed by Omni-Directional Reflectors,” Opt. Express (to be published).

Watanabe, Y.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.  Baba, A.  Motegi, T.  Iwai, N.  Fukaya, Y.  Watanabe, A.  Sakai, “Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743–752 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J. C.

Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

M.  Tokushima, H.  Yamada, “Photonic crystal line defect waveguide directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 37,1454–1455 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T.

Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

B.  D’Urso, O.  Painter, J.  O’Brien, T.  Tombrello, A.  Yariv, A.  Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, Y. X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. C.  Chen, H. D.  Chien, P. G.  Luan, “Photonic Crystal Beam Splitters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 6188–6190 (2004).
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Y.  Sugimoto, Y.  Tanaka, N.  Ikeda, T.  Yang, H.  Nakamura, K.  Asakawa, K.  Inoue, T.  Maruyama, K.  Miyashita, K.  Ishida, Y.  Watanabe, “Design, fabrication, and characterization of coupling-strength-controlled directional coupler based on two-dimensional photonic-crystal slab waveguides,”Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3236–3238 (2003).
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K. B.  Chung, S. W.  Hong, “Wavelength demultiplexers based on the superprism phenomena in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1549–1551 (2002).
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Y.  Park, Y.  Park, Y. G.  Roh, C. O  Cho, H.  Jeon, M. G.  Sung, J. C.  Woo, “GaAs-based near-infrared omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2770–2772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M.  Tokushima, H.  Yamada, “Photonic crystal line defect waveguide directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 37,1454–1455 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.  Cuesta, A.  Griol, A.  Martínez, J.  Martí, “Experimental demonstration of photonic crystal directional coupler at microwave,” Electron. Lett. 39, 455–456 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T.  Baba, A.  Motegi, T.  Iwai, N.  Fukaya, Y.  Watanabe, A.  Sakai, “Light Propagation Characteristics of Straight Single-Line-Defect Waveguides in Photonic Crystal Slabs Fabricated Into a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 743–752 (2002).
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S.  Adachi, “GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1-xAs Material parameters for use in research and device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1–R29 (1985).
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B.  D’Urso, O.  Painter, J.  O’Brien, T.  Tombrello, A.  Yariv, A.  Scherer, “Modal reflectivity in finite-depth two-dimensional photonic-crystal microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 15, 1155–1159 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N.  Kawai, K.  Inoue, N.  Carlsson, N.  Ikeda, Y.  Sugimoto, K.  Asakawa, T.  Takemori, “Confined Band Gap in an Air-Bridge Type of Two-Dimensional AlGaAs Photonic Crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2289–2292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. L.  Chuang, “Physics of optoelectronic devices,” eds. (Wiley Interscience, New York, NY, 1995), pp. 708–709.

S. S.  Lo, M. S.  Wang, C. C.  Chen, “Semiconductor Hollow Optical Waveguides formed by Omni-Directional Reflectors,” Opt. Express (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Band structure of the PC structure and the modes in PC couplers (b) Propagation of light simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method in the PC directional coupler for wavelengths 1.31 and 1.55 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscopic image of the device after fabrication process and schematic cross-section structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectra of the output ports at wavelengths (a)1.31 µm and (b)1.55 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Air waveguide using omni-directional reflectors.

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