Abstract

Polarization dependent leakage loss as well as optical birefringence for the fundamental mode in square- and rectangular-lattice holey fibers with elliptical air holes are studied numerically based on the full-vector finite element method for the first time. It is shown that high birefringence in the order of 10-2 and large polarization dependent loss required for single-polarization single-mode transmission are both achievable by using the proposed structure.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. K.  Hwang, Y. H.  Lee, K.  Oh, D. N.  Payne, “High birefringence in elliptical hollow optical fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 1916 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-1916.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C.  Kerbage, P.  Steinvurzel, P.  Reyes, P. S.  Westbrook, R. S.  Windeler, A.  Hale, B. J.  Eggleton, “Highly tunable birefringence microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 27, 842 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A.  Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C.  Knight, W. J.  Wadsworth, J.  Arriaga, B. J.  Mangan, T. A.  Birks, P. St. J.  Russell, “Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X.  Chen, M. J.  Li, N.  Venkataraman, M. T.  Gallagher, W. A.  Wood, A. M.  Crowley, J.  Carberry, L. A.  Zenteno, K. W.  Koch, “Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 12, 3888(2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3888.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. H.  Bouk, A.  Cucinotta, F.  Poli, S.  Selleri, “Dispersion properties of square-lattice photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 941 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-5-941.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. St. J.  Russell, E.  Marin, A.  Díez, S.  Guenneau, A. B.  Movchan, “Sonic bandgaps in PCF performs: enhancing the interaction of sound and light,” Opt. Express 11, 2555 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-20-2555.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Y.  Chen, R. J.  Yu, “Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A 6, 512 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J.  Steel, R. M.  Osgood, “Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 495 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J.  Steel, R. M.  Osgood, “Elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 229 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K.  Saitoh, M.  Koshiba, “Chromatic dispersion control in photonic crystal fibers: application to ultra-flattened dispersion,” Opt. Express 11, 843 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-843.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K.  Okamoto, “Single-polarization operation in highly birefringent optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2638 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. S.  Chiang, “Stress-induced birefringence fibers designed for single-polarization single-mode operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 436 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R.  Simpson, R. H.  Stolen, F. M.  Sears, W.  Pleibel, J. B.  Macchesney, R. E.  Howard, “A single-polarization fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 370 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. J.  Messerly, J. R.  Onstott, R. C.  Mikkelson, “A broad-band single polarization optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 817 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K.  Saitoh, M.  Koshiba, “Single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1384 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H.  Kubota, S.  Kawanishi, S.  Koyanagi, M.  Tanaka, S.  Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D.  Ferrarini, L.  Vincetti, M.  Zoboli, “Leakage properties of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 10, 1314 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-23-1314.
    [PubMed]
  19. M.  Koshiba, Y.  Tsuji, “Curvilinear hybrid edge/nodal elements with triangular shape for guided-wave problems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 737 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. F.  Lee, D. K.  Sun, Z. J.  Cendes, “Full wave analysis of dielectric waveguides using tangential vector finite elements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 39, 1262 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. S.  Andersen, J. L.  Volakis, “Mixed order tangential vector finite elements for triangular elements,” IEEE Anten. Propag. Magz. 40, 104 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P.  Falkenstein, C. D.  Merritt, B. L.  Justus, “Fused performs for the fabrication of photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1858 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

2001 (3)

T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J.  Steel, R. M.  Osgood, “Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 495 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J.  Steel, R. M.  Osgood, “Elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 229 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1998 (1)

L. S.  Andersen, J. L.  Volakis, “Mixed order tangential vector finite elements for triangular elements,” IEEE Anten. Propag. Magz. 40, 104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. J.  Messerly, J. R.  Onstott, R. C.  Mikkelson, “A broad-band single polarization optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 817 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. F.  Lee, D. K.  Sun, Z. J.  Cendes, “Full wave analysis of dielectric waveguides using tangential vector finite elements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 39, 1262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. S.  Chiang, “Stress-induced birefringence fibers designed for single-polarization single-mode operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 436 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

J. R.  Simpson, R. H.  Stolen, F. M.  Sears, W.  Pleibel, J. B.  Macchesney, R. E.  Howard, “A single-polarization fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, L. S.

L. S.  Andersen, J. L.  Volakis, “Mixed order tangential vector finite elements for triangular elements,” IEEE Anten. Propag. Magz. 40, 104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bouk, A. H.

Broeng, J.

T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carberry, J.

Cendes, Z. J.

J. F.  Lee, D. K.  Sun, Z. J.  Cendes, “Full wave analysis of dielectric waveguides using tangential vector finite elements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 39, 1262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. Y.

M. Y.  Chen, R. J.  Yu, “Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A 6, 512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chiang, K. S.

K. S.  Chiang, “Stress-induced birefringence fibers designed for single-polarization single-mode operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 436 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Crowley, A. M.

Cucinotta, A.

Díez, A.

Eggleton, B. J.

Falkenstein, P.

Ferrarini, D.

Gallagher, M. T.

Guenneau, S.

Hale, A.

Hansen, T. P.

T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R. E.

J. R.  Simpson, R. H.  Stolen, F. M.  Sears, W.  Pleibel, J. B.  Macchesney, R. E.  Howard, “A single-polarization fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

Jensen, J. R.

T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Justus, B. L.

Kawanishi, S.

H.  Kubota, S.  Kawanishi, S.  Koyanagi, M.  Tanaka, S.  Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kerbage, C.

Knight, J. C.

Knudsen, E.

T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, K. W.

Koshiba, M.

Koyanagi, S.

H.  Kubota, S.  Kawanishi, S.  Koyanagi, M.  Tanaka, S.  Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

H.  Kubota, S.  Kawanishi, S.  Koyanagi, M.  Tanaka, S.  Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. F.

J. F.  Lee, D. K.  Sun, Z. J.  Cendes, “Full wave analysis of dielectric waveguides using tangential vector finite elements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 39, 1262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

Li, M. J.

Libori, S. E. B.

T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macchesney, J. B.

J. R.  Simpson, R. H.  Stolen, F. M.  Sears, W.  Pleibel, J. B.  Macchesney, R. E.  Howard, “A single-polarization fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Marin, E.

Merritt, C. D.

Messerly, M. J.

M. J.  Messerly, J. R.  Onstott, R. C.  Mikkelson, “A broad-band single polarization optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 817 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelson, R. C.

M. J.  Messerly, J. R.  Onstott, R. C.  Mikkelson, “A broad-band single polarization optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 817 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Movchan, A. B.

Oh, K.

Okamoto, K.

Onstott, J. R.

M. J.  Messerly, J. R.  Onstott, R. C.  Mikkelson, “A broad-band single polarization optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 817 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Osgood, R. M.

Payne, D. N.

Pleibel, W.

J. R.  Simpson, R. H.  Stolen, F. M.  Sears, W.  Pleibel, J. B.  Macchesney, R. E.  Howard, “A single-polarization fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Poli, F.

Reyes, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

Saitoh, K.

Sears, F. M.

J. R.  Simpson, R. H.  Stolen, F. M.  Sears, W.  Pleibel, J. B.  Macchesney, R. E.  Howard, “A single-polarization fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Selleri, S.

Simonsen, H.

T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

J. R.  Simpson, R. H.  Stolen, F. M.  Sears, W.  Pleibel, J. B.  Macchesney, R. E.  Howard, “A single-polarization fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Steinvurzel, P.

Stolen, R. H.

J. R.  Simpson, R. H.  Stolen, F. M.  Sears, W.  Pleibel, J. B.  Macchesney, R. E.  Howard, “A single-polarization fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sun, D. K.

J. F.  Lee, D. K.  Sun, Z. J.  Cendes, “Full wave analysis of dielectric waveguides using tangential vector finite elements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 39, 1262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

H.  Kubota, S.  Kawanishi, S.  Koyanagi, M.  Tanaka, S.  Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuji, Y.

Venkataraman, N.

Vincetti, L.

Volakis, J. L.

L. S.  Andersen, J. L.  Volakis, “Mixed order tangential vector finite elements for triangular elements,” IEEE Anten. Propag. Magz. 40, 104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Wood, W. A.

Yamaguchi, S.

H.  Kubota, S.  Kawanishi, S.  Koyanagi, M.  Tanaka, S.  Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R. J.

M. Y.  Chen, R. J.  Yu, “Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A 6, 512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zenteno, L. A.

Zoboli, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Anten. Propag. Magz. (1)

L. S.  Andersen, J. L.  Volakis, “Mixed order tangential vector finite elements for triangular elements,” IEEE Anten. Propag. Magz. 40, 104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K.  Saitoh, M.  Koshiba, “Single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.  Kubota, S.  Kawanishi, S.  Koyanagi, M.  Tanaka, S.  Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. P.  Hansen, J.  Broeng, S. E. B.  Libori, E.  Knudsen, A.  Bjarklev, J. R.  Jensen, H.  Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. (1)

J. F.  Lee, D. K.  Sun, Z. J.  Cendes, “Full wave analysis of dielectric waveguides using tangential vector finite elements,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 39, 1262 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

M. J.  Steel, R. M.  Osgood, “Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 495 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.  Koshiba, Y.  Tsuji, “Curvilinear hybrid edge/nodal elements with triangular shape for guided-wave problems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 737 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S.  Chiang, “Stress-induced birefringence fibers designed for single-polarization single-mode operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 436 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. R.  Simpson, R. H.  Stolen, F. M.  Sears, W.  Pleibel, J. B.  Macchesney, R. E.  Howard, “A single-polarization fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 370 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. J.  Messerly, J. R.  Onstott, R. C.  Mikkelson, “A broad-band single polarization optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 817 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

M. Y.  Chen, R. J.  Yu, “Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A 6, 512 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The structure of the square-lattice HF with elliptical air holes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Illustration of the structure parameters.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The birefringence for the cases with a=0.6. The solid lines are with s=0.8 and the dot lines are with s=0.9.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The birefringence for the cases with a=0.7. The solid lines are with s=0.8 and the dot lines are with s=0.9.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The birefringence for the cases with Λ=2.32 µm. The solid lines are with s=0.8 and the dot lines are with s=0.9.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The birefringence for the cases with Λ=1 µm. The solid lines are with s=0.8 and the dot lines are with s=0.9.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The birefringence for the cases with Λ=1 µm, a=0.6.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The leakage loss for the cases with Λ=1 µm, a=0.6.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The leakage loss for the cases with Λ=1 µm, a=0.7

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The leakage loss for the cases with Λ=2.32 µm, a=0.6. The irregularities in the lower two curves should be due to the numerical inaccuracy when the imaginary part of the eigenvalue is too small and can be discarded.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

The leakage loss for the cases with Λ=2.32 µm, a=0.5, and s=0.52.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

The structure of rectangular-lattice HF with elliptical air holes.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

The birefringence of rectangular-lattice HFs for Λx=0.4Λ and Λx=0.2Λ respectively.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

The leakage loss of rectangular-lattice HFs for x-polarized mode and y-polarized mode respectively with Λx=0.4Λ.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

The leakage loss of rectangular-lattice HFs for x-polarized mode and y-polarized mode respectively with Λx=0.2Λ.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Contour plots of the field magnitude for (a) Ex mode of the rectangular-lattice HF with Λx=0.2Λ at 1.55 µm; (b) Ey mode of the rectangular-lattice HF with Λx=0.2Λ at 1.55 µm. The increment between adjacent contours is 1/10 of the peak value.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s = d x d = d d y
e = d x d y = s 2
a = d Λ
Leakage loss = 2.10 7 ln ( 10 ) · 2 π λ · Im [ n eff ] ( dB m )

Metrics