Abstract

Laser operation of Ti:sapphire rib waveguides fabricated using photolithography and ion beam etching in pulsed laser deposited layers is reported. Polarized laser emission was observed at 792.5 nm with an absorbed pump power threshold of 265 mW, which is more than a factor of 2 lower in comparison to their planar counterparts. Measured beam propagation factors Mx2 and My2 of 1.3 and 1.2, respectively, indicated single-transverse-mode emission. A quasi-cw output power of 27 mW for an absorbed pump power of 1W and a slope efficiency of 5.3% were obtained using an output coupler of 4.6% transmission with a pump duty cycle of 8%.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

2003 (1)

C.  Grivas, D. P.  Shepherd, T. C.  May-Smith, R. W.  Eason, A.  Crunteanu, M.  Pollnau, M.  Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501–507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (3)

1997 (2)

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, L. M. B.  Hickey, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D. S.  Gill, N. A.  Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D.  Lane, K.  Rodgers, L. M. B.  Hickey, C.  Fotakis, “Growth of Ti:sapphire single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1989 (1)

W. A.  Clarkson, D. C.  Hanna, “Effects of transverse mode profile on slope efficiency and relaxation oscillations in a longitudinally pumped laser” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 483–498 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Anderson, A. A.

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D.  Lane, K.  Rodgers, L. M. B.  Hickey, C.  Fotakis, “Growth of Ti:sapphire single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, L. M. B.  Hickey, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D. S.  Gill, N. A.  Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A.A.

Apostolopoulos, V.

Boppart, S. A.

Brülisauer, S.

Chambaz, B.

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, I.

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

W. A.  Clarkson, D. C.  Hanna, “Effects of transverse mode profile on slope efficiency and relaxation oscillations in a longitudinally pumped laser” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 483–498 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Crunteanu, A.

C.  Grivas, D. P.  Shepherd, T. C.  May-Smith, R. W.  Eason, A.  Crunteanu, M.  Pollnau, M.  Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501–507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Eason, R. W.

L. M. B.  Hickey, V.  Apostolopoulos, R. W.  Eason, J.  Wilkinson, A.A.  Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1452–1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.  Grivas, D. P.  Shepherd, T. C.  May-Smith, R. W.  Eason, A.  Crunteanu, M.  Pollnau, M.  Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501–507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R.W.

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D.  Lane, K.  Rodgers, L. M. B.  Hickey, C.  Fotakis, “Growth of Ti:sapphire single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, L. M. B.  Hickey, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D. S.  Gill, N. A.  Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, B.

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

Fotakis, C.

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D.  Lane, K.  Rodgers, L. M. B.  Hickey, C.  Fotakis, “Growth of Ti:sapphire single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gill, D. S.

Greber, T.

Grivas, C.

C.  Grivas, D. P.  Shepherd, T. C.  May-Smith, R. W.  Eason, A.  Crunteanu, M.  Pollnau, M.  Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501–507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D.  Lane, K.  Rodgers, L. M. B.  Hickey, C.  Fotakis, “Growth of Ti:sapphire single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, L. M. B.  Hickey, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D. S.  Gill, N. A.  Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

Hanna, D. C.

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. A.  Clarkson, D. C.  Hanna, “Effects of transverse mode profile on slope efficiency and relaxation oscillations in a longitudinally pumped laser” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 483–498 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hickey, L. M. B.

Holliday, K.

Huber, J. R.

Ippen, E. P.

Jelinek, M.

C.  Grivas, D. P.  Shepherd, T. C.  May-Smith, R. W.  Eason, A.  Crunteanu, M.  Pollnau, M.  Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501–507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D.  Lane, K.  Rodgers, L. M. B.  Hickey, C.  Fotakis, “Growth of Ti:sapphire single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, L. M. B.  Hickey, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D. S.  Gill, N. A.  Vainos, “Ti:sapphire planar waveguide laser grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1556–1558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Ko, T.

Kowalevicz, A.

Lane, D.

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D.  Lane, K.  Rodgers, L. M. B.  Hickey, C.  Fotakis, “Growth of Ti:sapphire single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Large, A. C.

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Manoravi, P.

May-Smith, T. C.

C.  Grivas, D. P.  Shepherd, T. C.  May-Smith, R. W.  Eason, A.  Crunteanu, M.  Pollnau, M.  Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501–507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

Moulton, P. F.

Murray, T. A.

Pelenc, D.

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Pliska, T.

Pollnau, M.

C.  Grivas, D. P.  Shepherd, T. C.  May-Smith, R. W.  Eason, A.  Crunteanu, M.  Pollnau, M.  Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501–507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A.  Kowalevicz, T.  Ko, I.  Hartl, J. G.  Fujimoto, M.  Pollnau, R. P.  Salathé, “Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography using a superluminescent light source,” Opt. Express 10, 349–353 (2002).
[PubMed]

Rodgers, K.

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D.  Lane, K.  Rodgers, L. M. B.  Hickey, C.  Fotakis, “Growth of Ti:sapphire single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M.  Schmitt, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

C.  Grivas, D. P.  Shepherd, T. C.  May-Smith, R. W.  Eason, A.  Crunteanu, M.  Pollnau, M.  Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501–507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solcia, C.

Tropper, A.C.

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

Wilkinson, J.

Willmott, P. R.

Wyon, C.

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.  Grivas, D. P.  Shepherd, T. C.  May-Smith, R. W.  Eason, A.  Crunteanu, M.  Pollnau, M.  Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 501–507 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M.  Schmitt, “Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205–1215 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. A.  Clarkson, D. C.  Hanna, “Effects of transverse mode profile on slope efficiency and relaxation oscillations in a longitudinally pumped laser” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 483–498 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

D.  Pelenc, B.  Chambaz, I.  Chartier, B.  Ferrand, C.  Wyon, D. P.  Shepherd, D. C.  Hanna, A. C.  Large, A.C.  Tropper, Opt. Commun. 115, 491–497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. A.  Anderson, R.W.  Eason, M.  Jelinek, C.  Grivas, D.  Lane, K.  Rodgers, L. M. B.  Hickey, C.  Fotakis, “Growth of Ti:sapphire single crystal thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 300, 68–71 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental configuration for the investigation of the rib waveguide lasers. The laser cavity is formed by the mirrors M1 and M2. The geometry of the resulting structure after the fabrication process is shown in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Lasing spectrum originating from a Ti:sapphire rib waveguide for an absorbed pump power of 350 mW. The structure was 3.5 µm and 10 µm in height and width, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output power from a rib waveguide laser with height and width of 3.5 µm and 10 µm, respectively, as a function of the absorbed power for an output coupler with a 4.6% transmission at the lasing wavelength

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser mode profile obtained from a Ti:sapphire rib waveguide of height 3.5 µm and width 10 µm using a 4.6 % output coupler at an absorbed power of 350 mW.

Equations (2)

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η = η q λ p λ l · ln ( R 2 ) ln ( R 1 · R 2 ) + 2 · l · a L · η pl
η pl = W lx · W ly · ( 2 W px 2 + W lx 2 ) 1 2 · ( 2 W py 2 + W ly 2 ) 1 2 ( W px 2 + W lx 2 ) · ( W py 2 + W ly 2 )

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