Abstract

We report the fabrication of the first spun holey optical fibre. Our experiments show that the complex air/glass transverse structure can be retained when the preform is spun during the fibre drawing process. Measurements of differential group delay (DGD) confirm that significant reductions in polarization mode dispersion (PMD) can be readily achieved using this approach.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, “Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 488–490, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Barlow, J.J. Ramskov-Hansen, and D. N. Payne, “Birefringence and polarization mode-dispersion in spun single-mode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2962–2968, (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. C. Hart, R. G. Huff, and K. L Walker, “Method of making a fiber having low polarization mode dispersion due to a permanent spin,” U.S. patent 5, 298,047 (1994).
  4. R. E. Schuh, X. Shan, and S. Siddiqui, “Polarization Mode Dispersion in Spun Fibers with Different Linear Birefringence and Spinning Parameters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1583–1588, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Li and D. A. Nolan “Fiber spin-profile designs for producing fibers with low polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1659–1661 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327, (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper TuM2, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2001.
  9. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1998).
  10. X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan, “Scaling properties of polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers in the presence of random mode coupling,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1595–1597, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Gisin, B. Gisin, J. P. Von der Weid, and R. Passy, “How accurately can one measure a statistical quantity like polarization-mode dispersion?,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1671–1673 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan “Analytical results for polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper Thl1, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2002.
  13. M. J. Li, X. Chen, and D. A. Nolan, “Effect of residual stress on PMD of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th1.7.2, (2003), Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003.

2003 (2)

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li, X. Chen, and D. A. Nolan, “Effect of residual stress on PMD of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th1.7.2, (2003), Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003.

2002 (2)

X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan “Analytical results for polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper Thl1, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2002.

X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan, “Scaling properties of polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers in the presence of random mode coupling,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1595–1597, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

1996 (1)

N. Gisin, B. Gisin, J. P. Von der Weid, and R. Passy, “How accurately can one measure a statistical quantity like polarization-mode dispersion?,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1671–1673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. C. Hart, R. G. Huff, and K. L Walker, “Method of making a fiber having low polarization mode dispersion due to a permanent spin,” U.S. patent 5, 298,047 (1994).

1981 (1)

Arriaga, J.

Barlow, A. J.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper TuM2, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2001.

Botten, L. C.

Broeng, J.

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper TuM2, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2001.

Chen, X.

M. J. Li, X. Chen, and D. A. Nolan, “Effect of residual stress on PMD of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th1.7.2, (2003), Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003.

X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan “Analytical results for polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper Thl1, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2002.

X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan, “Scaling properties of polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers in the presence of random mode coupling,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1595–1597, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Derickson, D.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

Folgenberg, J.R.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, B.

N. Gisin, B. Gisin, J. P. Von der Weid, and R. Passy, “How accurately can one measure a statistical quantity like polarization-mode dispersion?,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1671–1673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, B. Gisin, J. P. Von der Weid, and R. Passy, “How accurately can one measure a statistical quantity like polarization-mode dispersion?,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1671–1673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hart, A. C.

A. C. Hart, R. G. Huff, and K. L Walker, “Method of making a fiber having low polarization mode dispersion due to a permanent spin,” U.S. patent 5, 298,047 (1994).

Huff, R. G.

A. C. Hart, R. G. Huff, and K. L Walker, “Method of making a fiber having low polarization mode dispersion due to a permanent spin,” U.S. patent 5, 298,047 (1994).

Knight, J. C.

Knudsen, E.

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper TuM2, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2001.

Li, M. J.

M. J. Li, X. Chen, and D. A. Nolan, “Effect of residual stress on PMD of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th1.7.2, (2003), Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003.

X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan “Analytical results for polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper Thl1, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2002.

X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan, “Scaling properties of polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers in the presence of random mode coupling,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1595–1597, (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li and D. A. Nolan “Fiber spin-profile designs for producing fibers with low polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1659–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Libori, S. B.

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper TuM2, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2001.

Ludvigsen, H.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Martijn de Sterke, C.

McPhedran, R. C.

Niemi, T.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D. A.

M. J. Li, X. Chen, and D. A. Nolan, “Effect of residual stress on PMD of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th1.7.2, (2003), Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003.

X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan “Analytical results for polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper Thl1, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2002.

X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan, “Scaling properties of polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers in the presence of random mode coupling,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1595–1597, (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Li and D. A. Nolan “Fiber spin-profile designs for producing fibers with low polarization mode dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1659–1661 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Passy, R.

N. Gisin, B. Gisin, J. P. Von der Weid, and R. Passy, “How accurately can one measure a statistical quantity like polarization-mode dispersion?,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1671–1673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Petterson, A.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramskov-Hansen, J.J.

Ritari, T.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Schuh, R. E.

Shan, X.

Siddiqui, S.

Simonsen, H. R.

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper TuM2, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2001.

Steel, M. J.

Von der Weid, J. P.

N. Gisin, B. Gisin, J. P. Von der Weid, and R. Passy, “How accurately can one measure a statistical quantity like polarization-mode dispersion?,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1671–1673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Walker, K. L

A. C. Hart, R. G. Huff, and K. L Walker, “Method of making a fiber having low polarization mode dispersion due to a permanent spin,” U.S. patent 5, 298,047 (1994).

Wegmuller, M.

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Gisin, B. Gisin, J. P. Von der Weid, and R. Passy, “How accurately can one measure a statistical quantity like polarization-mode dispersion?,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1671–1673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Ritari, T. Niemi, H. Ludvigsen, M. Wegmuller, N. Gisin, J.R. Folgenberg, and A. Petterson, “Polarization-mode dispersion of large-mode area photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Commun. 226, 233–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

U.S. patent (1)

A. C. Hart, R. G. Huff, and K. L Walker, “Method of making a fiber having low polarization mode dispersion due to a permanent spin,” U.S. patent 5, 298,047 (1994).

Other (4)

S. B. Libori, J. Broeng, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, and H. R. Simonsen, “High-birefringent photonic crystal fiber,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper TuM2, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2001.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1998).

X. Chen, M. J. Li, and D. A. Nolan “Analytical results for polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Comm. Conference, paper Thl1, Anheim, California, 17–22 Mar. 2002.

M. J. Li, X. Chen, and D. A. Nolan, “Effect of residual stress on PMD of spun fibers,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, paper Th1.7.2, (2003), Rimini, Italy, Sept. 2003.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron micrograph image of the fiber samples A,B,C.

Fig 2.
Fig 2.

DGD of the samples A (up left), B (up right) and C (bottom left) as a function of wavelength. Bottom Right: Accuracy limitation of the measured PMD values

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Parameters of the LMA HFs

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of PMD measurements with uncertainties

Equations (2)

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Δ τ ( ω 1 , ω 2 ) 2 = 1 ω 2 ω 1 ω 1 ω 2 δ τ ( ω ) 2 .
Δ τ meas = Δτ ¯ ( 1 ± α Δτ ¯ Δ ω ) ,

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