Abstract

Solution doping of microstructured polymer optical fibres [mPOF] is demonstrated, a technique which allows dopants to be introduced after polymerisation through the microstructure. Controlled diffusion is used to disperse the dopant uniformly across the fibre core, and the final concentration can be systematically varied by appropriate choice of conditions. We use this technique to produce a fibre doped with Rhodamine 6G and characterize its loss and fluorescence behavior.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2705–2708 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. G Kuzyk, U. C Paek, and C. W Dirk, “Dye -doped Polymer fibers for non-linear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902 (1991)
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, S. Ponrathnam, and A. Argyros, “Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibre, (Seattle, Sept.2003), pp 89–92
  6. J. Zagari, G. Barton, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, N. A Issa, L. Poladian, and M. A van Eijkelenborg, “Small-core single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibre with large external diameter,” Opt. Lett. 29, 818–820 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Neogi, Diffusion in polymers (New York, Marcel Dekker, 1996)
  8. N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “Transport of Methanol in Poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 19, 255–265 (1978)
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “A deformation model for case II diffusion” Polymer 21, 613–619 (1980)
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Muto and S. Tajika., “Diffusion of alcohol-rhodamine 6G in polymethyl methacrylateJ. Mat. Sci., . 21,2114–18 (1986)
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Argyros, Optical Fibre Technology Centre, University of Sydney, 206 National Innovation Centre, Australian Technology Park, Eveleigh 1430 Australia, and M.A. van Eijkelenborg , S. Jackson and R. Mildren are preparing a manuscript to be called ″A microstructured polymer fiber laser.″

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, S. Ponrathnam, and A. Argyros, “Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibre, (Seattle, Sept.2003), pp 89–92

2000 (1)

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2705–2708 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. G Kuzyk, U. C Paek, and C. W Dirk, “Dye -doped Polymer fibers for non-linear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902 (1991)
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Muto and S. Tajika., “Diffusion of alcohol-rhodamine 6G in polymethyl methacrylateJ. Mat. Sci., . 21,2114–18 (1986)
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “A deformation model for case II diffusion” Polymer 21, 613–619 (1980)
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “Transport of Methanol in Poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 19, 255–265 (1978)
[CrossRef]

Argyros, A.

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, S. Ponrathnam, and A. Argyros, “Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibre, (Seattle, Sept.2003), pp 89–92

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

A. Argyros, Optical Fibre Technology Centre, University of Sydney, 206 National Innovation Centre, Australian Technology Park, Eveleigh 1430 Australia, and M.A. van Eijkelenborg , S. Jackson and R. Mildren are preparing a manuscript to be called ″A microstructured polymer fiber laser.″

Barton, G.

J. Zagari, G. Barton, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, N. A Issa, L. Poladian, and M. A van Eijkelenborg, “Small-core single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibre with large external diameter,” Opt. Lett. 29, 818–820 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Bassett, I.M

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Cox, F.

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, S. Ponrathnam, and A. Argyros, “Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibre, (Seattle, Sept.2003), pp 89–92

Dirk, C. W

M. G Kuzyk, U. C Paek, and C. W Dirk, “Dye -doped Polymer fibers for non-linear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Fellew, M.

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Henry, G.

J. Zagari, G. Barton, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, N. A Issa, L. Poladian, and M. A van Eijkelenborg, “Small-core single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibre with large external diameter,” Opt. Lett. 29, 818–820 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, S. Ponrathnam, and A. Argyros, “Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibre, (Seattle, Sept.2003), pp 89–92

Imai, N.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Issa, N. A

J. Zagari, G. Barton, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, N. A Issa, L. Poladian, and M. A van Eijkelenborg, “Small-core single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibre with large external diameter,” Opt. Lett. 29, 818–820 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2705–2708 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Koike, Y.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2705–2708 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, K.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M. G

M. G Kuzyk, U. C Paek, and C. W Dirk, “Dye -doped Polymer fibers for non-linear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C. J

J. Zagari, G. Barton, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, N. A Issa, L. Poladian, and M. A van Eijkelenborg, “Small-core single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibre with large external diameter,” Opt. Lett. 29, 818–820 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, S. Ponrathnam, and A. Argyros, “Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibre, (Seattle, Sept.2003), pp 89–92

Manos, S.

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Michie, A.

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, S. Ponrathnam, and A. Argyros, “Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibre, (Seattle, Sept.2003), pp 89–92

Muto, J.

J. Muto and S. Tajika., “Diffusion of alcohol-rhodamine 6G in polymethyl methacrylateJ. Mat. Sci., . 21,2114–18 (1986)
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, S.

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2705–2708 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Neogi, P.

P. Neogi, Diffusion in polymers (New York, Marcel Dekker, 1996)

Nihei, E.

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2705–2708 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, S.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, Y.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Padden, W.

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C

M. G Kuzyk, U. C Paek, and C. W Dirk, “Dye -doped Polymer fibers for non-linear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902 (1991)
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

J. Zagari, G. Barton, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, N. A Issa, L. Poladian, and M. A van Eijkelenborg, “Small-core single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibre with large external diameter,” Opt. Lett. 29, 818–820 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Ponrathnam, S.

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, S. Ponrathnam, and A. Argyros, “Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibre, (Seattle, Sept.2003), pp 89–92

Sasaki, K.

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2705–2708 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Tagaya, A.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2705–2708 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Tajika, S.

J. Muto and S. Tajika., “Diffusion of alcohol-rhodamine 6G in polymethyl methacrylateJ. Mat. Sci., . 21,2114–18 (1986)
[CrossRef]

Thomas, N. L.

N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “A deformation model for case II diffusion” Polymer 21, 613–619 (1980)
[CrossRef]

N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “Transport of Methanol in Poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 19, 255–265 (1978)
[CrossRef]

Toshihiko, T.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

van Eijkelenborg, M. A

van Eijkelenborg, M.A.

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Windle, A. H

N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “A deformation model for case II diffusion” Polymer 21, 613–619 (1980)
[CrossRef]

N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “Transport of Methanol in Poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 19, 255–265 (1978)
[CrossRef]

Zagari, J.

J. Zagari, G. Barton, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, N. A Issa, L. Poladian, and M. A van Eijkelenborg, “Small-core single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibre with large external diameter,” Opt. Lett. 29, 818–820 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Toshihiko, S. Nishihara, Y. Nishizawa, A. Tagaya, and Y. Koike, “High-efficiency organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 331–333 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M. G Kuzyk, U. C Paek, and C. W Dirk, “Dye -doped Polymer fibers for non-linear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902 (1991)
[CrossRef]

J. Mat. Sci. (1)

J. Muto and S. Tajika., “Diffusion of alcohol-rhodamine 6G in polymethyl methacrylateJ. Mat. Sci., . 21,2114–18 (1986)
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2705–2708 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

M.A. van Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, G. Barton, I.M Bassett, M. Fellew, G. Henry, N. A Issa, M. C. J Large, S. Manos, W. Padden, L. Poladian, and J. Zagari, “Recent progress in microstructured polymer optical fibre fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 199–209 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Polymer (2)

N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “Transport of Methanol in Poly(methyl methacrylate),” Polymer 19, 255–265 (1978)
[CrossRef]

N. L. Thomas and A. H Windle, “A deformation model for case II diffusion” Polymer 21, 613–619 (1980)
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. Cox, A. Michie, G. Henry, M. C. J Large, S. Ponrathnam, and A. Argyros, “Poling and Doping of Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibre, (Seattle, Sept.2003), pp 89–92

P. Neogi, Diffusion in polymers (New York, Marcel Dekker, 1996)

A. Argyros, Optical Fibre Technology Centre, University of Sydney, 206 National Innovation Centre, Australian Technology Park, Eveleigh 1430 Australia, and M.A. van Eijkelenborg , S. Jackson and R. Mildren are preparing a manuscript to be called ″A microstructured polymer fiber laser.″

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-section of preform during the doping, showing two holes adjacent to the core with the dye and solvent fronts diffusing in from the holes (top). Plot of the position of the dye and solvents fronts as a function of time (bottom). The linear dependence indicates Case II diffusion. The dotted line indicates the position of the core radius.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescence intensity as a function of radius to show uniform doping in the core.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross section of a preform removed from the solution prior to the solvent fronts meeting in the core (left) and the same preform after heating (right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optical loss measurements of a doped and undoped fibre, drawn from the same preform, indicating that the doping does not introduce losses other than those due to the absorption of the dye (the sharp increase at the short wavelength region of the graph).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The absorption spectrum of the Rhodamine 6G dye as determined by measuring the loss spectrum of a doped fibre and subtracting from it the loss spectrum of an undoped fibre. Two fluorescence spectra are also shown for a very short fibre (few millimetres) and a longer fibre (approximately 2 m). The shift to the red in the longer fibre results from re-absorption of the fluorescence by the dye. The fluorescence measurements were taken by launching light from an Argon-ion laser (514 nm – this laser line has been removed from the graph) into the core of the fibre. For a concentration around 1 mmol/L the absorption peak reached approximately 20 dB/m.

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