Abstract

The voltage-controllable multichannel filter based on multiply cascaded long-period fiber gratings with a divided coil heater will be proposed and experimentally demonstrated. It has several advantages of the large tuning range in both C- and L-band, multichannel operation, multiwavelength selectivity, and bandwidth controllability. The tunable bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings with the broad bandwidth over 6.5 nm, large tuning range over 30 nm, and excellent side mode suppression more than 40 dB will be also discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  2. V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, “Simultaneous Measurement Systems Employing Long-Period Grating Sensors,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors- 11, 702–705 (1996).
  3. Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of strain and temperature sensors using long period fiber grating,” IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).
  4. X. J. Gu, “Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation fiber filter and light source using cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 23, 509–510 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber gratings pair,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3450–3459 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings’, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 383–385 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Yamashita and T. Baba, “Spacing-tunable multiwavelength fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1015–1017 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength cascaded-Raman source based on tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2002, WJ1 (2002).
  9. V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2000, 28–30 (2000).
  10. D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–592 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Development of a novel core mode blocker with H2-loaded Ge-B co-doped fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1107–1108 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, and T. Sugihara, “Tunable dispersion equalizer with a divided thin-film heater for 40-Gb/s RZ transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 827–829 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1016 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2003 (2)

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings’, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Development of a novel core mode blocker with H2-loaded Ge-B co-doped fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1107–1108 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, and T. Sugihara, “Tunable dispersion equalizer with a divided thin-film heater for 40-Gb/s RZ transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 827–829 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Yamashita and T. Baba, “Spacing-tunable multiwavelength fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1015–1017 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2000, 28–30 (2000).

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of strain and temperature sensors using long period fiber grating,” IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

1999 (2)

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1016 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. H. Lee and J. Nishii, “Dependence of fringe spacing on the grating separation in a long-period fiber gratings pair,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3450–3459 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

X. J. Gu, “Wavelength-division multiplexing isolation fiber filter and light source using cascaded long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 23, 509–510 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–592 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, “Simultaneous Measurement Systems Employing Long-Period Grating Sensors,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors- 11, 702–705 (1996).

Baba, T.

S. Yamashita and T. Baba, “Spacing-tunable multiwavelength fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1015–1017 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, “Simultaneous Measurement Systems Employing Long-Period Grating Sensors,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors- 11, 702–705 (1996).

Chung, Y.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings’, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Development of a novel core mode blocker with H2-loaded Ge-B co-doped fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1107–1108 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of strain and temperature sensors using long period fiber grating,” IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

Claus, R. O.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, “Simultaneous Measurement Systems Employing Long-Period Grating Sensors,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors- 11, 702–705 (1996).

DaCosta, A.

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1016 (1999).
[Crossref]

Douay, M.

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1016 (1999).
[Crossref]

Duhem, O.

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1016 (1999).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2000, 28–30 (2000).

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–592 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2000, 28–30 (2000).

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–592 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gu, X. J.

Han, Y. G.

Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Development of a novel core mode blocker with H2-loaded Ge-B co-doped fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1107–1108 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings’, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of strain and temperature sensors using long period fiber grating,” IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

Henninot, J. F.

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1016 (1999).
[Crossref]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. U.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings’, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength cascaded-Raman source based on tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2002, WJ1 (2002).

Khurgin, J. B.

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength cascaded-Raman source based on tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2002, WJ1 (2002).

Kim, C. S.

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings’, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of strain and temperature sensors using long period fiber grating,” IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength cascaded-Raman source based on tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2002, WJ1 (2002).

Kim, S. H.

Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Development of a novel core mode blocker with H2-loaded Ge-B co-doped fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1107–1108 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. H.

Lee, S. B.

Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Development of a novel core mode blocker with H2-loaded Ge-B co-doped fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1107–1108 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, S.

S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, and T. Sugihara, “Tunable dispersion equalizer with a divided thin-film heater for 40-Gb/s RZ transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 827–829 (2001).
[Crossref]

Murphy, K. A.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, “Simultaneous Measurement Systems Employing Long-Period Grating Sensors,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors- 11, 702–705 (1996).

Nishii, J.

Ohira, T.

S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, and T. Sugihara, “Tunable dispersion equalizer with a divided thin-film heater for 40-Gb/s RZ transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 827–829 (2001).
[Crossref]

Paek, U. C.

Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Development of a novel core mode blocker with H2-loaded Ge-B co-doped fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1107–1108 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings’, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of strain and temperature sensors using long period fiber grating,” IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sova, R. M.

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength cascaded-Raman source based on tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2002, WJ1 (2002).

Starodubov, D. S.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2000, 28–30 (2000).

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–592 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sugihara, T.

S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, and T. Sugihara, “Tunable dispersion equalizer with a divided thin-film heater for 40-Gb/s RZ transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 827–829 (2001).
[Crossref]

Takabayashi, M.

S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, and T. Sugihara, “Tunable dispersion equalizer with a divided thin-film heater for 40-Gb/s RZ transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 827–829 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita and T. Baba, “Spacing-tunable multiwavelength fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1015–1017 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoshiara, K.

S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, and T. Sugihara, “Tunable dispersion equalizer with a divided thin-film heater for 40-Gb/s RZ transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 827–829 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

S. Yamashita and T. Baba, “Spacing-tunable multiwavelength fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1015–1017 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, S. H. Kim, S. B. Lee, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Development of a novel core mode blocker with H2-loaded Ge-B co-doped fibers,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1107–1108 (2003).
[Crossref]

O. Duhem, A. DaCosta, J. F. Henninot, and M. Douay, “Long period copper-coated grating as an electrically tunable wavelength-selective filter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1014–1016 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. Matsumoto, T. Ohira, M. Takabayashi, K. Yoshiara, and T. Sugihara, “Tunable dispersion equalizer with a divided thin-film heater for 40-Gb/s RZ transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 827–829 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Multiwavelength Raman fiber ring laser based on tunable cascaded long-period fiber gratings’, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 383–385 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. S. Starodubov, V. Grubsky, and J. Feinberg, “All-fiber bandpass filter with adjustable transmission using cladding-mode coupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1590–592 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEICE Trans. on Electronics (1)

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, “Performance enhancement of strain and temperature sensors using long period fiber grating,” IEICE Trans. on Electronics E83-C, 282–286 (2000).

in Proc. Optical Fiber (1)

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, and R. O. Claus, “Simultaneous Measurement Systems Employing Long-Period Grating Sensors,” in Proc. Optical Fiber Sensors- 11, 702–705 (1996).

in Tech. Dig. (1)

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, “Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2000, 28–30 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58–64 (1996).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

C. S. Kim, R. M. Sova, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Novel multi-wavelength cascaded-Raman source based on tunable fiber Sagnac loop filter,” in Tech. Dig. OFC2002, WJ1 (2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measured transmission characteristics of tunable multichannel filter when the applied voltage increased.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of the voltage-controllable multichannel filter based on cascaded LPFGs (a) and the voltage-controllable bandpass filter with a core mode blocker (b). Once the core mode blocker is placed in the middle of two gratings, the tunable bandpass filter can be fabricated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The experimental results of the wavelength shift of three channels when the applied voltage increased. The linear fitting was -3.4 nm/V.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission characteristics of the tunable bandpass filter with the voltage change corresponding to the cladding mode order. Multiple passbands occur in the spectrum because the core mode is generally coupled to several cladding modes in the LPFGs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured results of the resonant wavelength shift corresponding to the cladding mode order when the applied voltage increased.

Equations (3)

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a Co a Cl Out = T 1 · T 2 T N a Co ( 0 ) a Cl ( 0 ) ,
Δ λ λ 2 Δ n · D ,
Q = V 2 R t = V 2 R n N T ,

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