Abstract

This letter addresses a dye-doped planar cholesteric cell as a one-dimensional photonic crystal, which can be lased at the band edges of the photonic band gap. The effect of the composition of the material and the thickness of a cholesteric cell (CLC) on the lasing action, and the photo-control of the lasing frequency, are experimentally investigated. Adding a tunable chiral monomer (TCM) allows the CLC’s reflection band to be tuned by varying the intensity and/or exposure time of the UV curing light, enabling the lasing frequency of the CLC sample to be tuned.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ,1995).
  2. J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden,”The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. I. Koop, B. Fan, H. K. Vithana, and A. Z. Genack, “Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1707(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Ultraviolet lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 804(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. S. Goldberg and J. M. Schnur, “Tunable internal-feedback liquid crystal laser,” U.S. patent 3,771,065 (Novemer 6,1973).
  6. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Tunable mirrorless lasing inf cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Hasse, and K. Yoshino,”Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14,306(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Seiichi Furumi, Shiyoshi Yokoyama, Akira Otomo, and Shinro Mashiko, ”Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 16(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Matsui and R. Ozaki,”Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3741(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Schmidtke and W. Stille,”Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electrooptic effects in liquid crystal materials, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994), pp. 327.
  12. Jui-Hsiang Liu, Hung-Tsai Liu, and Fu-Ren Tsai,”Preparation and characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films using poly(bornyl methacrylate),” Polymer International 42, 385(1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Jui-Hsiang Liu, Jen-Chieh Shih, Chih-Hung Shih, and Wei-Ting Chen, “Preparation and characterization of copolymers containing (+)-bornyl mthacrylate and their racemate for positive-tone photoresist,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 81, 3538(2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Solladie’ and R. G. Zimmermann,”Liquid Crystals: A tool for studies on chirality,” Angew. Chem. int. Ed. Engl. 23, 348(1984).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Seiichi Furumi, Shiyoshi Yokoyama, Akira Otomo, and Shinro Mashiko, ”Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 16(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

T. Matsui and R. Ozaki,”Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3741(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille,”Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746(2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Hasse, and K. Yoshino,”Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14,306(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Tunable mirrorless lasing inf cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Jen-Chieh Shih, Chih-Hung Shih, and Wei-Ting Chen, “Preparation and characterization of copolymers containing (+)-bornyl mthacrylate and their racemate for positive-tone photoresist,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 81, 3538(2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Ultraviolet lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 804(2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Hung-Tsai Liu, and Fu-Ren Tsai,”Preparation and characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films using poly(bornyl methacrylate),” Polymer International 42, 385(1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden,”The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. Solladie’ and R. G. Zimmermann,”Liquid Crystals: A tool for studies on chirality,” Angew. Chem. int. Ed. Engl. 23, 348(1984).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electrooptic effects in liquid crystal materials, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994), pp. 327.

Bloemer, M. J.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden,”The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden,”The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Wei-Ting

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Jen-Chieh Shih, Chih-Hung Shih, and Wei-Ting Chen, “Preparation and characterization of copolymers containing (+)-bornyl mthacrylate and their racemate for positive-tone photoresist,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 81, 3538(2001).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electrooptic effects in liquid crystal materials, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994), pp. 327.

Dowling, J. P.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden,”The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B.

Finkelmann, H.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Tunable mirrorless lasing inf cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Furumi, Seiichi

Seiichi Furumi, Shiyoshi Yokoyama, Akira Otomo, and Shinro Mashiko, ”Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 16(2003).
[CrossRef]

Ganzke, D.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Hasse, and K. Yoshino,”Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14,306(2002).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A. Z.

Goldberg, L. S.

L. S. Goldberg and J. M. Schnur, “Tunable internal-feedback liquid crystal laser,” U.S. patent 3,771,065 (Novemer 6,1973).

Hasse, W.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Hasse, and K. Yoshino,”Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14,306(2002).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ,1995).

Kasano, M.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Hasse, and K. Yoshino,”Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14,306(2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Tunable mirrorless lasing inf cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koop, V. I.

Liu, Hung-Tsai

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Hung-Tsai Liu, and Fu-Ren Tsai,”Preparation and characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films using poly(bornyl methacrylate),” Polymer International 42, 385(1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Jui-Hsiang

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Jen-Chieh Shih, Chih-Hung Shih, and Wei-Ting Chen, “Preparation and characterization of copolymers containing (+)-bornyl mthacrylate and their racemate for positive-tone photoresist,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 81, 3538(2001).
[CrossRef]

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Hung-Tsai Liu, and Fu-Ren Tsai,”Preparation and characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films using poly(bornyl methacrylate),” Polymer International 42, 385(1997).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, Shinro

Seiichi Furumi, Shiyoshi Yokoyama, Akira Otomo, and Shinro Mashiko, ”Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 16(2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui and R. Ozaki,”Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3741(2002).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ,1995).

Munoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Tunable mirrorless lasing inf cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Ultraviolet lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 804(2001).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, Akira

Seiichi Furumi, Shiyoshi Yokoyama, Akira Otomo, and Shinro Mashiko, ”Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 16(2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Hasse, and K. Yoshino,”Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14,306(2002).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, R.

T. Matsui and R. Ozaki,”Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3741(2002).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Tunable mirrorless lasing inf cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Ultraviolet lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 804(2001).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden,”The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille,”Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746(2002).
[CrossRef]

Schnur, J. M.

L. S. Goldberg and J. M. Schnur, “Tunable internal-feedback liquid crystal laser,” U.S. patent 3,771,065 (Novemer 6,1973).

Shih, Chih-Hung

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Jen-Chieh Shih, Chih-Hung Shih, and Wei-Ting Chen, “Preparation and characterization of copolymers containing (+)-bornyl mthacrylate and their racemate for positive-tone photoresist,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 81, 3538(2001).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Jen-Chieh

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Jen-Chieh Shih, Chih-Hung Shih, and Wei-Ting Chen, “Preparation and characterization of copolymers containing (+)-bornyl mthacrylate and their racemate for positive-tone photoresist,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 81, 3538(2001).
[CrossRef]

Solladie’, G.

G. Solladie’ and R. G. Zimmermann,”Liquid Crystals: A tool for studies on chirality,” Angew. Chem. int. Ed. Engl. 23, 348(1984).
[CrossRef]

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille,”Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746(2002).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Tunable mirrorless lasing inf cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Ultraviolet lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 804(2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Fu-Ren

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Hung-Tsai Liu, and Fu-Ren Tsai,”Preparation and characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films using poly(bornyl methacrylate),” Polymer International 42, 385(1997).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H. K.

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ,1995).

Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

Seiichi Furumi, Shiyoshi Yokoyama, Akira Otomo, and Shinro Mashiko, ”Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 16(2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Hasse, and K. Yoshino,”Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14,306(2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, R. G.

G. Solladie’ and R. G. Zimmermann,”Liquid Crystals: A tool for studies on chirality,” Angew. Chem. int. Ed. Engl. 23, 348(1984).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri,”Tunable mirrorless lasing inf cholesteric liquid crystalline elastomer,” Adv. Mater. 13, 1069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Hasse, and K. Yoshino,”Mirrorless lasing in a dye-doped ferroelectric liquid crystal,” Adv. Mater. 14,306(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille,”Laser emission in a dye doped cholesteric polymer network,” Adv. Mater. 14, 746(2002).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. int. Ed. Engl. (1)

G. Solladie’ and R. G. Zimmermann,”Liquid Crystals: A tool for studies on chirality,” Angew. Chem. int. Ed. Engl. 23, 348(1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Seiichi Furumi, Shiyoshi Yokoyama, Akira Otomo, and Shinro Mashiko, ”Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 16(2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui and R. Ozaki,”Flexible mirrorless laser based on a free-standing film of photopolymerized cholesteric liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3741(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden,”The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polymer Sci. (1)

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Jen-Chieh Shih, Chih-Hung Shih, and Wei-Ting Chen, “Preparation and characterization of copolymers containing (+)-bornyl mthacrylate and their racemate for positive-tone photoresist,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 81, 3538(2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Polymer International (1)

Jui-Hsiang Liu, Hung-Tsai Liu, and Fu-Ren Tsai,”Preparation and characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films using poly(bornyl methacrylate),” Polymer International 42, 385(1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ,1995).

L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electrooptic effects in liquid crystal materials, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1994), pp. 327.

L. S. Goldberg and J. M. Schnur, “Tunable internal-feedback liquid crystal laser,” U.S. patent 3,771,065 (Novemer 6,1973).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Lasing pattern of the dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal cell stabilized with polymer. The left green light is the pumping light.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured reflection bands of CLCs with different chiral concentrations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variations of the lasing wavelength with the concentration of the chiral material and the polymer added to the sample. The pumping source was the SHG of a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser pulse with an intensity of ~1μJ.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reflection bands of CLCs with different cell gaps.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Wedge cell: variance of pitch at various thicknesses.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Lasing spectrum from the wedge CLC cell at various cell gaps; (a) 2μm, (b) 3μm and (c) 10μm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Variation of the lasing wavelength from a CLC cell to which TCM has been added, with duration of UV irradiation.

Equations (1)

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p = 1 β 0 . c 0 + β TCM . c TCM ,

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