Abstract

A silica planar waveguide structure, where a ridge waveguide resides on a vacuum gap, was invented. The silica layer, which was fabricated through thermal oxidation at 1150 °C, had an excellent optical index uniformity on the order of 3×10-5 @1550 nm, and a thickness uniformity of 10 nm at a thickness of 10 µm. Straight waveguide with low insertion loss was demonstrated. Improved thermal efficiency of this structure to cause phase change was discussed in comparison to the conventional channel waveguide structure. Finally, the limitation of this technology to make complex device structures was also explored.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Okamoto, “PLC Technologies: present and future,” in Proc. SPIE 4532, 86–92 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. B.R. Singh, “Silica based planar lightwave circuits on silicon platform,” in Proc. SPIE 3975, 319–326(2000).
  3. Y.P. Li and C.H. Henry, “Silica-based integrated circuits,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics 143, 263–280(1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Kawachi, “Recent progress in silica-based planar lightwave circuits on silicon,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics 143, 257–262(1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. Q.-Y. Tong and U. Gösele, Semiconductor wafer bonding: science and technology (John Wiley, New York, 1999).

2001 (1)

K. Okamoto, “PLC Technologies: present and future,” in Proc. SPIE 4532, 86–92 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

B.R. Singh, “Silica based planar lightwave circuits on silicon platform,” in Proc. SPIE 3975, 319–326(2000).

1996 (2)

Y.P. Li and C.H. Henry, “Silica-based integrated circuits,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics 143, 263–280(1996).
[Crossref]

M. Kawachi, “Recent progress in silica-based planar lightwave circuits on silicon,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics 143, 257–262(1996).
[Crossref]

Gösele, U.

Q.-Y. Tong and U. Gösele, Semiconductor wafer bonding: science and technology (John Wiley, New York, 1999).

Henry, C.H.

Y.P. Li and C.H. Henry, “Silica-based integrated circuits,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics 143, 263–280(1996).
[Crossref]

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, “Recent progress in silica-based planar lightwave circuits on silicon,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics 143, 257–262(1996).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.P.

Y.P. Li and C.H. Henry, “Silica-based integrated circuits,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics 143, 263–280(1996).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, “PLC Technologies: present and future,” in Proc. SPIE 4532, 86–92 (2001).
[Crossref]

Singh, B.R.

B.R. Singh, “Silica based planar lightwave circuits on silicon platform,” in Proc. SPIE 3975, 319–326(2000).

Tong, Q.-Y.

Q.-Y. Tong and U. Gösele, Semiconductor wafer bonding: science and technology (John Wiley, New York, 1999).

IEE Proc. Optoelectronics (2)

Y.P. Li and C.H. Henry, “Silica-based integrated circuits,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics 143, 263–280(1996).
[Crossref]

M. Kawachi, “Recent progress in silica-based planar lightwave circuits on silicon,” IEE Proc. Optoelectronics 143, 257–262(1996).
[Crossref]

in Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Okamoto, “PLC Technologies: present and future,” in Proc. SPIE 4532, 86–92 (2001).
[Crossref]

B.R. Singh, “Silica based planar lightwave circuits on silicon platform,” in Proc. SPIE 3975, 319–326(2000).

Other (1)

Q.-Y. Tong and U. Gösele, Semiconductor wafer bonding: science and technology (John Wiley, New York, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagrams illustrating the basic ridge waveguide structure and its fabrication process. a) A shallow trench is formed at oxide film surface; b) a ridge structure is formed in oxide film; c) The original wafer α was bonded into a carrier wafer β, with nitride deposited on both sides; d) The nitride and backside oxide of wafer α together with about 400 µm of Si were lapped away. e) A ridge waveguide is encapsulated inside a vacuum cavity, not drawn proportionally. The approximate mode shape is drawn as guide to the eyes. f) The up-side-down positioned ridge waveguide with a cladding layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Angled-view scanning electron microscope image of a silica ridge waveguide encapsulated inside a cavity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) top view optical image of a silica ridge waveguide sitting on top of a vacuum gap, (b) a schematic diagram of the same structure.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Low-index material properties

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