Abstract

The Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of both clean seawaters and those polluted with oil film was determined using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer technique in which the spectrum of complex refractive index of Romashkino crude oil and the optical properties of case II water for chosen wavelengths was considered. The BRDF values were recorded for 1836 solid angular sectors of throughout the upper hemisphere. The visibility of areas polluted with oil observed from various directions and for various wavelengths is discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Z. Otremba and J. Piskozub, "Modelling of the optical contrast of an oil film on a sea surface," Opt. Express 9, 411-416 (2001), <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-8-411">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-8-411</a>.
    [CrossRef]
  2. Gao, F., C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Y. Jin, and X. Li, 2003, �??Detecting vegetation structure using a kernel-based BRDF model,�?? Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 198-205.
    [CrossRef]
  3. Mobley C. D., H.Zsang, K. J. Voss, 2003, �??Effects of optically shallow bottoms on upwelling radiances: Bidirectional reflectance distribution function effects,�?? Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 337-345.
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Otremba, �??Relationship between the quantities which describe reflective features of both land and ocean areas,�?? Proc. II International Conference on Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters, September 8-12, 2003, St. Petersburg, Russia, Petersburg (Russia) 2003, <a href= "http://am.gdynia.pl/~zot/ONW2003-Otremba.pdf">http://am.gdynia.pl/~zot/ONW2003-Otremba.pdf</a>.
  5. Schaaf, C. B., F. Gao, A. H. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. d'Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, and J. L. Privette, �??First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir Reflectance Products from MODIS,�?? Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 135-148 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Sagan, Institute of Oceanology, Powstancow Warszawy 54, 81-712 Sopot, Poland (personal communication, 2002).
  7. T. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,�?? In: Light in the sea, J. E. Tyler (Ed) Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa, 152-174 (1977)
  8. A. Vasicek, Optics of thin film (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1960).

II Intntl. Conf. ONW 2003 (1)

Z. Otremba, �??Relationship between the quantities which describe reflective features of both land and ocean areas,�?? Proc. II International Conference on Current Problems in Optics of Natural Waters, September 8-12, 2003, St. Petersburg, Russia, Petersburg (Russia) 2003, <a href= "http://am.gdynia.pl/~zot/ONW2003-Otremba.pdf">http://am.gdynia.pl/~zot/ONW2003-Otremba.pdf</a>.

Light in the sea (1)

T. Petzold, "Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,�?? In: Light in the sea, J. E. Tyler (Ed) Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa, 152-174 (1977)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

Mobley C. D., H.Zsang, K. J. Voss, 2003, �??Effects of optically shallow bottoms on upwelling radiances: Bidirectional reflectance distribution function effects,�?? Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 337-345.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

Gao, F., C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, Y. Jin, and X. Li, 2003, �??Detecting vegetation structure using a kernel-based BRDF model,�?? Remote Sens. Environ. 86, 198-205.
[CrossRef]

Schaaf, C. B., F. Gao, A. H. Strahler, W. Lucht, X. Li, T. Tsang, N. C. Strugnell, X. Zhang, Y. Jin, J.-P. Muller, P. Lewis, M. Barnsley, P. Hobson, M. Disney, G. Roberts, M. Dunderdale, C. Doll, R. d'Entremont, B. Hu, S. Liang, and J. L. Privette, �??First Operational BRDF, Albedo and Nadir Reflectance Products from MODIS,�?? Remote Sens. Environ. 83, 135-148 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Sagan, Institute of Oceanology, Powstancow Warszawy 54, 81-712 Sopot, Poland (personal communication, 2002).

A. Vasicek, Optics of thin film (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1960).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectra of components of complex refraction index of Romashkino crude oil.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Exemplary angular dependencies of transmittances and reflectances for water surface covered by an oil film of 1µm thickness, for two wavelengths: 420 nm (the left chart) and 550 nm (the right chart). Solid lines presents transmittances, broken lines – reflectances. Thick lines represent downward light, thin ones – upward light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Explanation of coordinates for presenting the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) r: transformation from hemisphere coordinates (left plot) to cylindrical coordinates (right plot).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) r for a clean sea-surface and for one polluted with oil film (the graphs on the left represent the clean surface, those on the right – the polluted one) and for two wavelength (420 nm – upper graphs; 550 nm – lower graphs). The white dots indicate the direction of specular reflection.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Contrast C calculated for sea areas polluted by oil film for two wavelengths: 420 nm (left chart) and 550 nm (right chart), observed at 1836 various angles throughout the hemisphere.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Contrast of seawater polluted by an oil film vs. angle of observation for various wavelengths. The Avery plot consists of 1836 points (covering the whole hemisphere) obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Optical parameters of natural seawater at various wavelengths.

Equations (3)

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r ( θ i , φ i , θ r , φ r , λ ) = dL r ( θ r , φ r , λ ) L i ( θ i , φ i , λ ) sin θ i cos θ i d θ i d φ i d λ
r ( θ i , φ i , θ r , φ r , λ ) = L r ( θ r , φ r ) E i ( θ i , φ i )
C = r o r c r c

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