Abstract

In this paper, we discuss the compression results of full color 3D Integral Images (II) by MPEG-2 (Motion Picture Experts Group). II is a popular three-dimensional image video recording and display technique. The huge size of II data has become a practical issue for storing and transmitting of 3D scenes. The MPEG is a standard coded representation of moving pictures. We model the elemental images in II as consecutive frames in a moving picture. Therefore, MPEG scheme can be applied to take advantage of the high cross-correlations between elemental images. We also introduce several scanning topologies along the elemental image sequences and investigate their performance with different number of pictures in GOP (Group of Picture). Experimental results are presented to illustrate the image quality of the MPEG-2 and the baseline JPEG with the same compression rate. We show that a well-known and widely-available MPEG-2 scheme can be a good alternative for II compression.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt. (4)

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

G. Lippmann, �??La photographic intergrale,�?? C. R. Acad. Sci. 146, 446-451 (1908).

IEEE Computer (1)

T. A. Welch, �??A technique for high performance data compression,�?? IEEE Computer 17, 8-19 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, �??Three-dimensional video system based on integral photography,�?? Opt. Eng. 38, 1072-1077 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (2)

T. Okoshi, �??Three-dimensional displays,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE 68, 548-564 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. Ambs, L. Bigue, Y. Fainman, R. Binet, J. Colineau, J.-C. Lehureau, and J.-P. Huignard, �??Image reconstruction using electrooptic holography,�?? in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on the 16th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 1 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ., 2003), pp. 179-180.

Proc. SPIE (3)

R. L. Joshi, M. Rabbani, and M. A. Lepley, �??Comparison of multiple compression cycle performance for JPEG and JPEG 2000,�?? in Applications of Digital Image Processing XXIII, A. G. Tescher, ed., Proc. SPIE 4115, 492-501 (2000).

J. A. Saghri, A. G. Tescher, and A. M. Planinac, �??KLT/JPEG 2000 multispectral bandwidth compression with region-of-interest prioritization capability,�?? in Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVI, A. G. Tescher, ed., Proc. SPIE 5203, 226-235, (Nov 2003).

T. Nomura, A. Okazaki, M. Kameda, Y. Morimoto, and B. Javidi, �??Digital holographic data reconstruction with data compression,�?? in Algorithms and Systems for Optical Information Processing V, B. Javidi and D. Psaltis, eds., Proc. SPIE 4471, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Signal Processing: Image Commun. (1)

R. Zaharia, A. Aggoun, and M. McCormick, �??Adaptive 3D-DCT compression algorithm for continuous parallax 3D integral imaging,�?? Signal Processing: Image Communication 17, 231-242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. S. Jang and B. Javidi, �??Compression of ray information in three-dimensional integral imaging using the Karhunen-Loeve transform,�?? submitted to Opt. Lett. (2004).

V. Bhaskaran and K. Konstantinides, Image and video compression standards 2nd edition, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Rabbani, Fundamentals of Wavelet Image compression and the emerging JPEG-2000 standard VT080, (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA., 2000).

M. C. Forman and A. Aggoun, �??Quantisation strategies for 3D-DCT-BASED compression of full parallax 3D images,�?? in Proceedings of Int. Conf. on Image processing and its applications, 6th, (Ireland, 1997), pp. 32-35.
[CrossRef]

MPEG-2 Video Codec (with Source Code), <a href="http://www.mpeg.org/MPEG/MSSG/#source">http://www.mpeg.org/MPEG/MSSG/#source</a>

MPEG-2 Test Model 5, <a href="http://www.mpeg.org/MPEG/MSSG/tm5">http://www.mpeg.org/MPEG/MSSG/tm5</a>

S. A. Benton, ed., Selected Papers on Three-Dimensional Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, WA., 2001).

A. Mahalanobis and C. Daniell, �??Data compression and correlation filtering,�?? in Smart Imaging Systems (SPIE Press, 2001).

M. Rabbani, Selected Papers on Image Coding and Compression, SPIE Milestone Series MS48 (SPIE Press, 1992).

Supplementary Material (25)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical system for generating integral images of a 3D object

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Block diagram of MPEG encoder for video part.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

I-, B-, P-pictures in GOP (N=6, M=3).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Three different scanning topologies for converting an II into a sequence of elemental images: (a) parallel scanning, (b) perpendicular scanning, (c) spiral scanning.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

3D objects used in II compression experiments: (a) two traffic sign plates and a toy car, (b) 3D objects arranged in II-(1) scene, (c) 3D objects arranged in II-(2) scene.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental results of 3D scene compression: (a) original II-(1) scene, (b) decompressed II-(1) scene after MPEG-2 compression (r=78.25, spiral scanning, N=6, M=3), (c) original II-(2) scene, (d) decompressed II-(2) scene after MPEG-2 compression (r=78.34, spiral scanning, N=6, M=3).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

MPEG-2 compression results for 3D scene in II-(1) in Fig. 5(b): PSNR and SNR of three scanning topologies in Fig. 4 with varying N and fixed M: (a) PSNR, (b) SNR.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

MPEG-2 compression results for 3D scene in II-(2) in Fig. 5(c): PSNR and SNR of three scanning topologies in Fig. 4 with varying N and fixed M: (a) PSNR, (b) SNR.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Results of compression experiments for 3D scene II-(1) in Fig. 5(b): image quality vs. Compression rates (spiral scanning, N=6, M=3): (a) PSNR, (b) SNR.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Results of compression experiments for 3D scene II-(2) in Fig. 5(c), image quality vs. Compression rates (spiral scanning, N=6, M=3): (a) PSNR, (b) SNR.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

II-(2) Movie for original and decompressed elemental images after MPEG-2 (spiral scanning, N=6, M=3): (a) original (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), (b) r=52.17 (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), (c) r=62.6 (6.2 MB, smaller version: 2.23MB), (d) r=78.25 (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), (e) r=102.62 (6.2MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), (f) r=136.09 (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), smaller version movies contain only 18 frames.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

II-(2) Movie for original and decompressed elemental images after MPEG-2 (spiral scanning, N=6, M=3): (a) original (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), (b) r=52.23 (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), (c) r=62.67 (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), (d) r=78.34 (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), (e) r=102.74 (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), (f) r=116.06 (6.2 MB version, smaller version: 2.23MB), smaller version movies contain only 18 frames. [Media 25]

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Specifications of II images used in the compression experiments

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Table 2. Experimental results of II compression

Equations (4)

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PSNR ( I o , I u ) = 10 log 10 ( P 2 MSE ( I o , I u ) ) ,
MSE ( I o , I u ) = 1 M s N s n = 1 N s m = 1 M s I o ( n , m ) I u ( n , m ) 2 ,
SNR ( I o , I u ) = 10 log 10 ( VAR ( I o ) MSE ( I o , I u ) ) ,
r = Original image size Compressed image size .

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