Abstract

We present a method of direct measurement of spectral gain and corresponding data in photonic crystal waveguides defined in heterostructures on InP substrates. The method makes use of two photopumping beams, one for gain generation, the other for amplification probing. The results show a clear enhancement of gain at spectral regions of low-group velocity, namely at the edges of the so-called mini-stopband of a three-missing rows wide photonic crystal waveguide.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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App. Phys. Lett.

J. Valenta, I. Pelant, J. Linnros, "Waveguiding effects in the measurement of optical gain in a layer of Si nanocrystals," App. Phys. Lett. 81, 1396-1398, (2003).
[CrossRef]

ECOC 2003

A. Talneau, J. L. Gentner, M. Mulot, S. Anand, S. Olivier, "CW monomode operation of efficient full photonic crystal lasers at 1.55 µm," presented at 29th EUropean Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Rimini, 2003.

Electron. Lett.

R. Ferrini, et al., "Optical characterisation of 2D InP-based photonic crystals fabricated by inductively coupled plasma etching," Electron. Lett. 38, 962-964, (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Ferrini, et al., "Optical study of two-dimensional photonic crystals by internal light source technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786-799, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scarola, M. J. Bloemer, C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: a new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899, (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Quantum Electron.

S. Olivier, et al., "Transmission properties of two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 171-181, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

M. D. Tocci, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, "Measurement of spontaneousemission enhancement near the photonic banf edge of a semiconductor structure," Phys. Rev. A 53, 2799-2803, (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

S. Olivier, et al., "Mini stopbands of a one dimensional system: the channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. B 63, 113311, (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode lasers and photonic integrated circuits. New-York: Wiley, 1995.

H. Benisty, et al., "Low-loss photonic-crystal and monolithic InP integration: bands, bends, lasers, filters," presented at SPIE Photonics West, San Jose, 2004.

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Figures (3)

Fig.1.
Fig.1.

(a) Two-dimensional photonic crystal etched through a vertically monomode semiconductor InP-based heterostructure ; (b) Dispersion relations of the W3 waveguide folded into the first Brillouin zone; (c) Micrograph of a three-missing-rows PCCW (top view) with period a=400 nm in a InP heterostructure containing quantum wells.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Scheme of the setup with two pump beams (Cam=camera; Sp=Spectrometer; Fib=optical fiber; BS=beamsplitter; P=polarizer; MO=mirror objective; S=sample; LO=lens objective; F1 to F4=filters, L=lens; CL=cylindrical lens; P=probe laser diode; G=gain laser diode); (b) scheme of the sample and excited areas for gain measurement in an unpatterned region (left) and in a PCCW (right); (c) principle of the gain soustraction method.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Bare spectra for the unpatterned measurement region, as indicated in Fig. 2(c), so that n Ipg (top spectrum), Ig was already subtracted ; (b) Gain difference spectrum from the above measurements, with a comparison to the expectation from basic gain theory with quantum well square-shaped joint DOS ; (c) Gain difference spectra for the three-missing-row 60a-long photonic crystal waveguide. The dip is the mini-stopband region. Note the two peaks on each side; (d) Plot of the group index ng=c(∂k/∂ω) of the fundamental mode as a function of wavelength, calculated by using the plane wave expansion method, and negative for consistency with Fig. 1(b). Note the divergence of ng at the edges of the mini-stop-band.

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