Abstract

We achieved room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser by current injection. This is the first time ever that room temperature continuous wave operation of a photonic crystal diode laser has been realized. This laser features single mode oscillation over a large area, which is impossible for conventional lasers. In this work, we optimized the epitaxial layer composition for better carrier confinement and clarified the relationship between the diameter of the air holes in the photonic crystal and the threshold current of the laser in order to estimate the optimized threshold current.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  58, 2059–2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature (London) 407, 608–610 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelength,” Science 298, 604–606 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design,” Science 293, 1123–1125 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting twodimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 39, 612–614 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).
  10. M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 µA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867–873 (1975)
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. M. K. Liu, Principles and applications of optical communications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

2003 (1)

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting twodimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 39, 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design,” Science 293, 1123–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 µA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature (London) 407, 608–610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelength,” Science 298, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867–873 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 µA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. D.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867–873 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design,” Science 293, 1123–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature (London) 407, 608–610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelength,” Science 298, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodabalapur, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 µA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Imada, M.

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting twodimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 39, 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design,” Science 293, 1123–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature (London) 407, 608–610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, M. M. K.

M. M. K. Liu, Principles and applications of optical communications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Meier, M.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design,” Science 293, 1123–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murata, M.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nalamasu, O.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting twodimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 39, 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design,” Science 293, 1123–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelength,” Science 298, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature (London) 407, 608–610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. D.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohnishi, D.

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting twodimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 39, 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting twodimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 39, 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, G.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867–873 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867–873 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Timko, A.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, T.

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tomoda, K.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelength,” Science 298, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ushigome, R.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 µA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, N.

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelength,” Science 298, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design,” Science 293, 1123–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Imada, S. Noda, A. Chutinan, T. Tokuda, M. Murata, and G. Sasaki, “Coherent two-dimensional lasing action in surface-emitting laser with triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 316–318 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, “Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7–9(1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

D. Ohnishi, K. Sakai, M. Imada, and S. Noda, “Continuous wave operation of surface emitting twodimensional photonic crystal laser,” Electron. Lett. 39, 612–614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40 µA,” Electron. Lett. 36, 790–791 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Streifer, D. R. Scifres, and R. D. Burnham, “Coupling coefficient for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867–873 (1975)
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

S. Noda, A. Chutinan, and M. Imada, “Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure,” Nature (London) 407, 608–610 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.,  58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

S. Noda, K. Tomoda, N. Yamamoto, and A. Chutinan, “Full three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals at near-infrared wavelength,” Science 298, 604–606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, “Two-Dimensional Photonic Band-Gap Defect Mode Laser,” Science 284, 1819–1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization Mode Control of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser by Unit Cell Structure Design,” Science 293, 1123–1125 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

M. M. K. Liu, Principles and applications of optical communications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

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Figures (7)

Fig.1.Schematic .
Fig.1.Schematic .

iagram of the device structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Schematic of a square lattice photonic crystal. The two narrow arrows indicate two particular directions G-X and G-M, and the broad arrows indicate propagating light waves. (b) Schematic showing the propagating directions of the coupled waves.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic conduction band diagram of the layer structure near the active layer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temperature characteristic of the devices under pulsed conditions (1kHz-500ns).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Lasing characteristics of the device under RT-CW condition. (a) Lasing spectrum. The operation current was 70 mA. (b) Light output power-current characteristic.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Near field pattern and polarization characteristics of the device. The blue open circles indicate the measurement points with a diameter of about 10 µm, and red double-headed arrows show the direction of polarization at each point. The operating current was 76 mA. (b) Far field pattern of the device. The operating current was 66 mA.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Relationship between the air-filling factor and the normalized threshold current at 20°C.

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