Abstract

Here we report the fabrication of hollow-core cylindrical photonic bandgap fibers with fundamental photonic bandgaps at near-infrared wavelengths, from 0.85 to 2.28 µm. In these fibers the photonic bandgaps are created by an all-solid multilayer composite meso-structure having a photonic crystal lattice period as small as 260 nm, individual layers below 75 nm and as many as 35 periods. These represent, to the best of our knowledge, the smallest period lengths and highest period counts reported to date for hollow PBG fibers. The fibers are drawn from a multilayer preform into extended lengths of fiber. Light is guided in the fibers through a large hollow core that is lined with an interior omnidirectional dielectric mirror. We extend the range of materials that can be used in these fibers to include poly(ether imide) (PEI) in addition to the arsenic triselenide (As2Se3) glass and poly(ether sulfone) (PES) that have been used previously. Further, we characterize the refractive indices of these materials over a broad wavelength range (0.25–15 µm) and incorporated the measured optical properties into calculations of the fiber photonic band structure and a preliminary loss analysis.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc.

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, �??Theory of bragg fiber,�?? J. Opt. Soc 68, 1196-1201 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nature

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan and K. W. Koch, �??Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre,�?? Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Temelkuran, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos and Y. Fink, �??Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO2 laser transmission,�?? Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photonic Crystals and Light Localization

D. C Allan J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, K. W. Koch, and N. F. Borrelli, �??Photonic crystal fibers: effective-index and bandgap guidance,�?? in Photonic Crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, ed (Kluwer, 2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, M. Soljacic, J. D. Jonnopoulos, Y. Fink, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, S. A. Jacobs, and M. Skorobogatiy, �??Analysis of mode structure in hollow dielectric waveguide fibers,�?? Phys. Rev. E 67, 046608-1-8, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, �??Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,�?? Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ibanescu, Y. Fink, S. Fan, E. L. Thomas, and J. D. Joannopoulos, �??An all-dielectric coaxial waveguide,�?? Science 289, 415-419 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, �??A dielectric omnidirectional reflector,�?? Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, �??External Reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,�?? Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, �??Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,�?? Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benadid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russell, �??Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,�?? Science 298, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Benoit and Y. Fink, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Database, <a href="http://mit-bg.mit.edu/Pages/Ellipsometry.html">http://mit-bg.mit.edu/Pages/Ellipsometry.html</a>

J. D. Joannopoulos, R.D. Meade, and J.N. Winn, �??Photonic crystals: molding the flow of light�??, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-sectional SEM micrographs of a 684-µm-OD fiber with a fundamental photonic bandgap at a wavelength of 2.28 µm mounted in epoxy are shown in (A), with multilayer structure lining around hollow core; (B) demonstrates the integrity of the multilayer structure; (C) reveals the ordering of alternating layers with As2Se3 (bright layers), and PEI (grey layers). The PEI layers have a thickness of 470 nm, and the As2Se3 layers are 270-nm-thick.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Real (n, upper panel) and imaginary (k, lower panel) refractive indices of As2Se3, PEI and PES measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry from 0.25 to 15 µm wavelength. The insets magnify the region between 0.25 and 2 µm (with k on logarithmic scale). The polymeric materials have vibrational absorption modes from 5 µm to 15 µm, while As2Se3 has an absorption band below 680 nm due to its electronic bandgap.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Lower panel – FTIR spectrum measurement for a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber. The fundamental photonic bandgap is centered around 2.28 µm. The second and the third-order gaps are at 1.14 µm and 0.8 µm, respectively. Upper panel-Calculated photonic band diagram for a one dimensional photonic crystal made of alternating layers of As2Se3 and PEI. The dark red and beige regions represent modes radiating thorough the multilayer structures for both the TE and TM modes, and only TM, respectively. Modes propagating through air and reflected by the fiber walls lie in the bandgaps (white) and within the light cone defined by the glancing-angle condition (black line). Pure TE modes can be confined more than pure TM modes. Refractive indices used in this calculation were experimentally obtained from ellipsometry (Fig. 2).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured normalized transmission spectra for (A) 1,218-µm-OD, (B) 1,094-µm-OD, (C) 1,013-µm-OD, (D) 783-µm-OD, (E) 621-µm-OD, (F) 509-µm-OD hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers. The fundamental photonic bandgaps are centered from 0.85 to 1.47 µm. Peak wavelengths from (A) to (F) are 1.47, 1.39, 1.27, 1.03, 1.93 and 0.85 µm, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Coiled fibers made from 1,218-µm-OD (red), 1,013-µm-OD (green), and 621-µm-OD (blue) fibers used to obtained transmission data in Fig.4.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Loss calculations for the 40 lowest-energy modes in a defect-free cylindrical PBG fiber having the same geometry as the measured fiber. The inset shows a near-field image of the core intensity as taken during the cutback measurement after 5-m of fiber.

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