Abstract

We show a quantitative connection between Refractive Index Profiles (RIP) and measurements made by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Germanium doped fibers were chemically etched in hydrofluoric acid solution (HF) and the wet etching characteristics of germanium were studied using an AFM. The AFM profiles were compared to both a concentration profile of the preform determined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and a RIP of the fiber measured using a commercial profiling instrument, and were found to be in excellent agreement. It is now possible to calculate the RIP of a germanium doped fiber directly from an AFM profile.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent and M. Bazylenko, �??Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, �??Characterisation of lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,�?? J. Lightwave. Technol. 12, 1517-1523 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D.J. Monk, D.S. Soane, R.T. Howe, "A review of the chemical reaction mechanism and kinetics for hydrofluoric acid etching of silicon dioxide for surface micromachining applications," Thin Solid Films, 232, 1-11 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G.A.C.M. Spierings, "Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions," J. Mater. Sci. 28, 6261-6273 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D.P. Tsai, Y.L. Chung, "Study of optical fibre structures by atomic force microscopy," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1563-1570 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S.T. Huntington, P. Mulvaney, A. Roberts, K.A. Nugent and M. Bazylenko, �??Atomic force microscopy for the determination of refractive index profiles of optical fibers and waveguides: A Quantitative study,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 82, 2730-2734 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol. (1)

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, �??Characterisation of lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,�?? J. Lightwave. Technol. 12, 1517-1523 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

G.A.C.M. Spierings, "Wet chemical etching of silicate glasses in hydrofluoric acid based solutions," J. Mater. Sci. 28, 6261-6273 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D.P. Tsai, Y.L. Chung, "Study of optical fibre structures by atomic force microscopy," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1563-1570 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

D.J. Monk, D.S. Soane, R.T. Howe, "A review of the chemical reaction mechanism and kinetics for hydrofluoric acid etching of silicon dioxide for surface micromachining applications," Thin Solid Films, 232, 1-11 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AFM image of Ge-doped, three-level ring fiber etched in 2M HF solution for 3 min.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Radial cross-section of the etched rings shown in Fig.1

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Etching of Ge-doped, three-level ring fiber in 2M HF.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured relationship of the etch rate of Ge-doped core fibers as a function of GeO2 content etched in HF solution.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison between GeO2 concentration profiles calculated from AFM data of the fiber and measured SEM data measured from the preform.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Quantitative comparison between refractive index profiles calculated from AFM data and measured refractive index data.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Variation of core diameter with etch time for a standard SMF-28 fiber.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Summary of measured reaction constants.

Equations (1)

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dx dt = k [ C ] n

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