Abstract

Gases leaking from a polyethene plant and a cracker plant were visualized with the gas-correlation imaging technique. Ethene escaping from flares due to incomplete or erratic combustion was monitored. A leakage at a high-pressure reactor tank could be found and visualized by scanning the camera system over the industrial site. The image processing methods rely on the information from three simultaneously captured images. A direct and a gas-filtered infrared image are recorded with a split-mirror telescope through a joint band-pass filter. The resulting path-integrated gas concentration image, derived from the two infrared images, is combined with a visible image of the scene. The gas-correlation technique also has the potential to estimate the flux in the gas plume by combining a wind vector map, derived by cross-correlating the images in time, with a calibrated gas path-integrated concentration image. The principles of the technique are outlined and its potential discussed.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  11. Camera system specifications; Detector: MCT Sprite Stirling, 4�??13 µm, NET = 80 mK, Filterwheel with 5 positions; Visualised gases: Methane, Ethene, Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide; Ammonia: Detection limit 30 ppm �? m at �?T = 18 K with split-image telescope (present), Range and resolution: 10-1000 meters, 136 �? 136 pixels gas image combined with high resolution visible image; Frame rate: 15 images/s.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys B (1)

P. Weibring, M. Andersson, H. Edner, and S. Svanberg, �??Remote monitoring of industrial emissions by combination of lidar and plume velocity measurements,�?? Appl. Phys B 66, 383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. S. Andersson, S. Montán, and S. Svanberg, �??Multi-spectral system for medical fluorescence imaging,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1798 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-257 (1)

J. Sandsten, �??Development of infrared spectroscopy techniques for environmental monitoring,�?? Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-257, 2000.

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

OSLO, Optics Software for Layout and Optimization, Ver 5.4, Sinclair Optics 2000.

Camera system specifications; Detector: MCT Sprite Stirling, 4�??13 µm, NET = 80 mK, Filterwheel with 5 positions; Visualised gases: Methane, Ethene, Ammonia, Nitrous Oxide; Ammonia: Detection limit 30 ppm �? m at �?T = 18 K with split-image telescope (present), Range and resolution: 10-1000 meters, 136 �? 136 pixels gas image combined with high resolution visible image; Frame rate: 15 images/s.

Supplementary Material (4)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The gas-correlation infrared camera system in front of a cracker plant.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Flare LT1 at the polyethene plant. (b) (2.0 MB) Movie of ethene gas cloud escaping from flare LT1 as visualized with the system (6.0 MB version).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Image of the polyethene plant taken from the same position as the flare measurements. The high pressure reactor is seen behind the gas purification site in the middle of the image.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Optically dense ethene gas cloud one minute after the safety valve release.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ethene gas cloud covering part of the industry five minutes after the high-pressure reactor safety valve release of 1–2 tons of ethene into the atmosphere.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(1.6 MB) Movie of ethene leakage. By sweeping the camera system over the polyethene plant, a leakage was found. A visible image and a sequence of gas images are shown. The gascorrelated images are merged with the zoomed visible image. The ethene gas leakage was taken care of immediately by the operating personnel (3.8 MB version).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Ray-tracing the gas-correlation telescope.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Raw split-mirror image of the flare at LT1. The left part of the figure shows the infrared image of the flare and at the same time the ethene gas-filtered image is captured and shown to the right in the figure.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Raw split-mirror image of the flare at LT1 with the background image removed.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Gas-correlated ethene image. The concentration times the depth in the image corresponds to a pixel value in the calibrated image. (b) By summing the pixel values in the column downwind where the gas cloud is optically thin, depicted by the vertical bar, and multiplying the sum with the wind vector obtained from cross-correlating two gas images in time, the ethene flux can be estimated.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(a) Gas-correlated ethene image at time T0. (b) Gas-correlated ethene image at time T1. (c) Wind vector map derived by cross-correlating the gas-correlated images at time T0 and T1. The resolution of the vector map is determined by the size of the small cross-correlation matrixes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of the two telescopes used for gas-correlation imaging.

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