Abstract

Third-order add-drop filters based on series-coupled microring resonators were fabricated in silicon-rich silicon nitride with accurate dimensional control and negligible sidewall roughness. For the first time, a low 3 dB drop loss is demonstrated with a wide 24 nm free-spectral-range in a high-order microring filter without using the Vernier effect. The spectral response is matched by rigorous numerical simulation, and non-idealities in the drop- and through-port responses are shown to be of design origin and to be correctable.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, H.A. Haus, J.S. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B.E. Little, “Advances in microring resonators,” presented at the Integrated Photonics Research Conference, Washington, DC, USA, 16–20 Jun. 2003.
  3. Y. Yanagase, S. Suzuki, Y. Kokubun, and S.T. Chu, “Box-like filter response and expansion of FSR by a vertically triple coupled microring resonator filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1525–1529 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.V. Hryniewicz, P.P. Absil, B.E. Little, R.A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B.E. Little, “A VLSI Photonic Platform,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2003), vol. 2, pp. 444–445.
  6. M. R. Watts, “Wavelength switching and routing through evanescently induced absorption,” MS Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Eng. and Computer Sc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA, 2001.
  7. T. Barwicz and H.I Smith, “Evolution of line-edge-roughness during fabrication of high index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2892–2896 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Manolatou, M.A. Popovic, P.T. Rakich, T. Barwicz, H.A. Haus, and E.P. Ippen, “Spectral anomalies due to coupling-induced frequency shifts in dielectric coupled resonator filters,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 22–27 Feb. 2004.
  9. R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, J.V. Hryniewicz, and P.P. Absil, “Filter synthesis for periodically coupled microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 25, 344–346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Barwicz and H.I Smith, “Evolution of line-edge-roughness during fabrication of high index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2892–2896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yanagase, S. Suzuki, Y. Kokubun, and S.T. Chu, “Box-like filter response and expansion of FSR by a vertically triple coupled microring resonator filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1525–1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J.V. Hryniewicz, P.P. Absil, B.E. Little, R.A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, J.V. Hryniewicz, and P.P. Absil, “Filter synthesis for periodically coupled microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 25, 344–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, H.A. Haus, J.S. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.P.

J.V. Hryniewicz, P.P. Absil, B.E. Little, R.A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, J.V. Hryniewicz, and P.P. Absil, “Filter synthesis for periodically coupled microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 25, 344–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz and H.I Smith, “Evolution of line-edge-roughness during fabrication of high index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2892–2896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, M.A. Popovic, P.T. Rakich, T. Barwicz, H.A. Haus, and E.P. Ippen, “Spectral anomalies due to coupling-induced frequency shifts in dielectric coupled resonator filters,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 22–27 Feb. 2004.

Calhoun, L. C.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.T.

Foresi, J.S.

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, H.A. Haus, J.S. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grover, R.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.A.

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, H.A. Haus, J.S. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, M.A. Popovic, P.T. Rakich, T. Barwicz, H.A. Haus, and E.P. Ippen, “Spectral anomalies due to coupling-induced frequency shifts in dielectric coupled resonator filters,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 22–27 Feb. 2004.

Ho, P.-T.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.V. Hryniewicz, P.P. Absil, B.E. Little, R.A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J.V.

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, J.V. Hryniewicz, and P.P. Absil, “Filter synthesis for periodically coupled microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 25, 344–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.V. Hryniewicz, P.P. Absil, B.E. Little, R.A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E.P.

C. Manolatou, M.A. Popovic, P.T. Rakich, T. Barwicz, H.A. Haus, and E.P. Ippen, “Spectral anomalies due to coupling-induced frequency shifts in dielectric coupled resonator filters,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 22–27 Feb. 2004.

Johnson, F. G.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

Laine, J.-P.

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, H.A. Haus, J.S. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Little, B.E.

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, J.V. Hryniewicz, and P.P. Absil, “Filter synthesis for periodically coupled microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 25, 344–346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.V. Hryniewicz, P.P. Absil, B.E. Little, R.A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, H.A. Haus, J.S. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B.E. Little, “Advances in microring resonators,” presented at the Integrated Photonics Research Conference, Washington, DC, USA, 16–20 Jun. 2003.

B.E. Little, “A VLSI Photonic Platform,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2003), vol. 2, pp. 444–445.

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou, M.A. Popovic, P.T. Rakich, T. Barwicz, H.A. Haus, and E.P. Ippen, “Spectral anomalies due to coupling-induced frequency shifts in dielectric coupled resonator filters,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 22–27 Feb. 2004.

Popovic, M.A.

C. Manolatou, M.A. Popovic, P.T. Rakich, T. Barwicz, H.A. Haus, and E.P. Ippen, “Spectral anomalies due to coupling-induced frequency shifts in dielectric coupled resonator filters,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 22–27 Feb. 2004.

Rakich, P.T.

C. Manolatou, M.A. Popovic, P.T. Rakich, T. Barwicz, H.A. Haus, and E.P. Ippen, “Spectral anomalies due to coupling-induced frequency shifts in dielectric coupled resonator filters,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 22–27 Feb. 2004.

Smith, H.I

T. Barwicz and H.I Smith, “Evolution of line-edge-roughness during fabrication of high index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2892–2896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

Van, V.

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, “Wavelength switching and routing through evanescently induced absorption,” MS Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Eng. and Computer Sc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA, 2001.

Wilson, R.A.

J.V. Hryniewicz, P.P. Absil, B.E. Little, R.A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yanagase, Y.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J.V. Hryniewicz, P.P. Absil, B.E. Little, R.A. Wilson, and P.-T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

B.E. Little, S.T. Chu, H.A. Haus, J.S. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Grover, V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, L. C. Calhoun, F. G. Johnson, J. V. Hryniewicz, and P.-T. Ho, “Parallel-cascaded semiconductor microring resonators for high-order and wide-FSR filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 900–905 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yanagase, S. Suzuki, Y. Kokubun, and S.T. Chu, “Box-like filter response and expansion of FSR by a vertically triple coupled microring resonator filter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1525–1529 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

T. Barwicz and H.I Smith, “Evolution of line-edge-roughness during fabrication of high index-contrast microphotonic devices,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2892–2896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

C. Manolatou, M.A. Popovic, P.T. Rakich, T. Barwicz, H.A. Haus, and E.P. Ippen, “Spectral anomalies due to coupling-induced frequency shifts in dielectric coupled resonator filters,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 22–27 Feb. 2004.

B.E. Little, “Advances in microring resonators,” presented at the Integrated Photonics Research Conference, Washington, DC, USA, 16–20 Jun. 2003.

B.E. Little, “A VLSI Photonic Platform,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2003), vol. 2, pp. 444–445.

M. R. Watts, “Wavelength switching and routing through evanescently induced absorption,” MS Thesis, Dept. of Electrical Eng. and Computer Sc., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA, 2001.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-section of a waveguide. See Table 1 for waveguide parameters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Third-order add-drop filter based on series-coupled microring resonators. The rings’ outer radius is 7.3 µm. The ring-to-bus gap is 60 nm and the ring-to-ring gap is 268 nm. (a) Scanning-electron micrograph. (b) Schematic of the chip layout used in the experiment. To ensure a reliable drop-loss measurement, the drop and the through waveguides traverse equivalent paths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured and simulated response of the third-order microring filter. The spectral asymmetry is due to frequency mismatch of resonators and can be compensated. Input-to-drop loss is dominated by scattering at the 60-nm-wide ring-bus coupler gaps. The narrow peak on the right of the drop spectrum is a measurement artifact. The inset shows several resonances and the free-spectral-range.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Waveguide Parameters

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