Abstract

Abstract This paper introduces a deposition method to create a multi-layered waveguide with alternating layers of high index of refraction contrast. A very thin Ag layer, practically transparent in the mid-IR radiation wavelengths of CO2 and Er-YAG lasers, was created. This enabled a good contrast of the indices of refraction of silver/silver iodide. Theoretical calculations as well as experiments have shown that transmission was higher at these wavelengths for two pair layers, in comparison to one pair of silver/silver iodide. Windows of transmittance and small sensitivity to bending were demonstrated for those two pair layer waveguides. This method could be extended to an increased number of pairs to configure a true photonic band gap waveguide.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt.

Bell Sys. Tech. J.

E.J. Marcatili and R. A. Schmeltzer, �??Hollow Metallic + Dielectric Waveguides for Long Distance Optical Transmission of Lasers,�?? Bell Sys. Tech. J. 43, 1783 (1964).

Fibers and Integrated Opt.

J.A. Harrington, �??A Review of IR Transmitting, Hollow Waveguides,�?? Fibers and Integrated Opt. 19, 211-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

I. Gannot, A. Inberg, M. Oxman, N. Croitoru and R. W. Waynant, �??Current status of flexible waveguides for infrared laser radiation transmission,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 880-889 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Alaluf, J. Dror, R. Dahan and N. Croitoru, �??Plastic hollow fibers as a selective infrared radiation transmitting medium,�?? J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3878 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Saito, M. Takizawa and M. Miyagi, �??Optical and mechanical properties of infrared fibers,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 233-239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mat.

I. Gannot, M. Ben-David, A. Inberg and N. Croitoru, �??Broadband omnidirectional IR flexible waveguides,�?? J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. 3, 933-935 (2001).

Mat. Lett.

H. Du, S.W. Lee, J. Gong, C. Sun, and L.S. Wen, �??Size effect of nano-copper films on complex optical constant and permittivity in infrared region,�?? Mat. Lett. 58, 1117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Temelkuran B, Hart SD, Benoit G, Joannopoulos JD, and Fink Y. �??Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibers with large photonic band gaps for CO2 laser transmission,�?? Nature 420, (6916), (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Morhaim, D. Mendlovic, I. Gannot, J. Dror, and N. Croitoru, "Ray model for transmission of IR radiation through multi bent cylindrical waveguides,�?? Opt. Eng. 3, 1886 (1991).
[CrossRef]

SPIE

P. O. Pedersen and J. A. Harrington, �??Characterization of hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) with metal-sulfide dielectric coatings,�?? paper 5317-08, SPIE, OPTICAL FIBERS AND SENSORS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS IV, January (2004).

R. Kasahara, T. Katagiri, Y. Matsuura, and M. Miyagi, �??Transmission properties of hollow glass fibers for the infrared fabricated by glass-drawing technique,�?? Paper 5317-31, SPIE, OPTICAL FIBERS AND SENSORS FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS IV, January (2004).

Other

J.A. Harrington, Infrared Fiber Optics and Their Applications, SPIE press, (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Ben-David, PhD Thesis, �??Development of Hollow Waveguides or IR Radiation,�?? Tel-Aviv University, (2003).

I. Gannot and Moshe Ben-David, �??Optical Fibers and Waveguides for Medical Applications,�??Biomedical Photonics handbook,�?? CRC press, Chapter 7, pages 7.1-7.22, (2003).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The double pair layers waveguide cross-section. A tube made of Silica glass is the substrate. It is coated with a thick layer of Ag and two layers of AgI with a thin Ag layer in between.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Theoretical calculation, using the refined ray tracing program, of the transmission vs. wavelength for a waveguide with two pairs of Ag/AgI layers, (thickness of second Ag layer is 70 nm) with index of refraction (n) contrast 1.7≤nAg/nAgI≤6.36 for the same wavelength interval.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A measurement of the waveguide transmission vs. bending for two different lasers (CO2 and Er-YAG).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A FTIR measurement of a waveguide with 4 layers (Ag=300 nm, AgI=110 nm, Ag=70 nm and AgI=110 nm) transmission normalized vs. wavelength (2–14 µm range).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A FTIR measurement of a waveguide with 4 layers (Ag=300 nm, AgI=135 nm, Ag=70 nm and AgI=135 nm) transmission normalized vs. wavelength (2–14 µm range).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measurements of Waveguides transmission of Er-YAG laser energy vs. bending.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measurements of Waveguides transmission of CO2 laser energy vs. bending. The WG with Ag/AgI (t=135 nm) double pair structure demonstrated the smallest reduction for Er-YAG laser energy transmission with ΔT=3.85 %.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Transmission of Er-YAG and CO2 lasers at different pair thicknesses.

Equations (2)

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T i = I out I in
A i = 10 { int ( 1 2 tan ( Φ i ) log ( ρ ( Φ i ) ) }

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