Abstract

Diffusion of Ge and F was studied during drawing of silica optical fibres. Preforms were drawn using various draw conditions and fibres analysed using the etching and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) technique. The results were confirmed by comparison with fibre Refractive Index Profiles (RIP). Both Ge and F were found to diffuse at high temperature, 2100°C, and low draw speed, 10m/min. Diffusion simulations showed that most diffusion occurred in the neck-down region. The draw temperature and preform feed rate had a comparable effect on diffusion, whereas preform diameter did not significantly affect the diffusion.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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Appl. Opt.

ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Confere

K. Lyytikäinen, P. Råback and J. Ruokolainen, "Numerical simulation of a specialty optical fibre drawing process," in Proceedings of the 2002 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, S. Kawano and V.V. Kudriavtsev, (ASME, New York, 2002), PVP448-2, pp. 267-276.

Electron. Lett.

J. Hersener, G.P. Huber and J. von Wienskowski, "Semiquantitative X-ray microanalysis on preforms for optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 20, 208-209 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonic Tech.

H. Yamada and H. Hanafusa, "Mode shape convertor produced by the thermal diffusion of different dopants," IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 6, 531-533 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J.T. Krause, W.A. Reed and K.L. Walker, �??Splice loss of single-mode fiber as related to fusion time, temperature, and index profile alteration,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 837-840 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, K. Lyytikainen and L. Poladian, "Nondestructive measurement for arbitrary RIP distribution of optical fiber preforms," J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

J. Lightwave. Tech.

Q. Zhong and D. Inniss, �??Characterisation of lightguiding structure of optical fibers by atomic force microscopy,�?? J. Lightwave. Tech. 12, 1517-1523 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol.

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa and S. Kawakami, �??Beam expanding fiber using thermal diffusion of the dopant,�?? J. Lightwave. Technol. 8, 1151-1161 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci.

A.C. Pugh, R.P. Stratton and D.B. Lewis, "Investigation of elemental diffusion during the drawing and heat treatment of glass optical fibres," J. Mater. Sci. 29, 1036-1040 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non- Cryst. Solids

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, "Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 209, 166-174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, K.-F. Klein and B. Knappe, "Diffusion behaviour of fluorine in silica glass," J. Non- Cryst. Solids 181, 226-273 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

P. Pace, S.T. Huntington, K. Lyytikäinen, A. Roberts and J.D. Love, "Refractive index profiles of Gedoped optical fibers with nanometer spatial resolution using atomic force microscopy," Submitted to Opt. Express Jan 2004.

Opt. Lett.

Optical Fiber Communications Conference

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, and B. Knappe, "Diffusion processes in lightguide materials," in Proceedings o fOptical Fiber Communications Conference, (2000), 2, pp. 212-214.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of (a) Ge-doped 3-ring fibre design, 3R and (b) F-doped fibre, F.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) AFM profiles and (b) RIPs of fibres 3R_1 and 2. (c) Computed and measured profiles for the innermost ring of 3R_1. Preform profile scaled to fibre dimensions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Preform F conc. and AFM profile of F1 and (b) AFM profiles of F1 and F3.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Etching depth of F-depleted outer dip and (b) slope of the core-cladding interface at various draw conditions. All data scaled to nominal 110µm diameter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Computed diffusion at different (a) furnace temperatures and (b) draw speeds.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Draw conditions.

Equations (2)

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c t = D ( 1 r c r + 2 c r 2 )
D = D o exp ( E RT ) ,

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