Abstract

We measure transmitted signals with time, aperture, and angle gating for comparison in micro-sphere suspension, chicken breast and chicken liver tissues. We find that in each sample, the small aperture-gated (angle-gated) signals for imaging are essentially different from those of early time gating. Meanwhile, the signals obtained from aperture and angle gating come from quite different parts of the transmitted photons. For biological tissues of different structures, different gating methods may lead to different levels of imaging quality. Also, the results indicate the generally different scattering characteristics of biological tissues from that of a particle-based phantom. The scattering nature in the biological tissues may imply that random continuum scattering needs to be considered in biological imaging. Between chicken breast and liver tissues, the time-gated data show that the later has stronger scattering and absorption.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasuo Hasegawa, Yukio Yamada, Mamoru Tamura, and Yasutomo Nomura, �??Monte Carlo simulation of light transmission through living tissues,�?? Appl. Opt. 30, 4515 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steven P. Schilders, Xiaosong S. Gan, and Min Gu, �??Resolution improvement in microscopic imaging through turbid media based on differential polarization gating,�?? Appl. Opt. 37, 4300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steven P. Schilders, Xiaosong S. Gan, and Min Gu, �??Microscopic imaging through a turbid medium by use of annular objectives for angle gating,�?? Appl. Opt. 37, 5320 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert Jarry, Elisa Steimer, Vivien Damaschini, Michael Epifanie, Marc Jurczak, Robin Kaiser, �??Coherence and polarization of light propagating through scattering media and biological tissues,�?? Appl. Opt. 37, 7357 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu Chen, Chenpeng Mu, Xavier Intes, and Britton Chance, �??Adaptive calibration for object localization in turbid media with interfering diffuse photon density waves,�?? Appl. Opt. 41, 7325 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Adam Wax, Changhuei Yang, Ramachandra R. Dasari, and Michael S. Feld, �??Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chia-Wei Sun, Chih-Yu Wang, C. C. Yang, Yean-Woei Kiang, I-Jen Hsu, and Chii-Wann Lin, �??Polarization gating in ultrafast-optics imaging of skeletal muscle tissues,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsiang-Hsu Wang, Chia-Wei Sun, Yih-Ming Wang, Yean-Woei Kiang, and C. C. Yang, �??Determination of the depth of a scattering target in a turbid medium with polarization discrimination of transmitted signals,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 25 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, �??Imaging of a translucent object hidden in a highly scattering medium from the early portion of the diffuse component of a transmitted ultrafast laser pulse,�?? Opt. Lett. 17, 958 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanitha Sankaran, Joseph T. Walsh, Jr., and Duncan J. Maitland, �??Polarized light propagation through tissue phantoms containing densely packed scatterers,�?? Opt. Lett. 25, 239 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos and R. R. Alfano, �??Temporal gating in highly scattering media by the degree of optical polarization,�?? Opt. Lett. 21, 161 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, X. Liang, P. Galland, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, �??True scattering coefficients of turbid matter measured by early-time gating,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 913 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiromichi Horinaka, Koji Hashimoto, Kenji Wada, Yoshio Cho, and Masahiko Osawa, �??Extraction of quasi-straightforward-propagating photons from diffused light transmitting through a scattering medium by polarization modulation,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 1501 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanitha Sankaran, Matthew J. Everett, Duncan J. Maitland, and Joseph T. Walsh, Jr., �??Comparison of polarized-light propagation in biological tissue and phantoms,�?? Opt. Lett. 24, 1044 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev.

Koichi Shimizu and Masataka Kitama, �??Fundamental study on near-axis scattered light and its application to optical computed tomography,�?? Opt. Rev. 7, 383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin. J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, �??Optical Coherence Tomography,�?? Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Akira Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Vols. 1 and 2, Academic Press, Inc., New York (1978).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for aperture-gating measurements. A: aperture, L: lens, F: fiber bundle connected to the streak camera.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for angle-gating measurements. F: fiber bundle connected to the streak camera.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized intensity versus time of the three samples in the case of time gating.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized integrated intensities versus aperture radius of the three samples in the case of aperture gating.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized integrated intensity versus angle of the three samples in the case of angle gating.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Definition of time interval over the range of a time-resolved intensity profile. The second and third intervals are divided by the profile peak. Each interval width is 47.4 ps.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Normalized intensity versus aperture radius of sample A in the case of aperture gating for different time intervals.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Normalized intensity versus aperture radius of sample B in the case of aperture gating for different time intervals.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Normalized intensity versus aperture radius of sample C in the case of aperture gating for different time intervals.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Normalized intensity versus angle of sample A in the case of angle gating for different time intervals.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Normalized intensity versus angle of sample B in the case of angle gating for different time intervals.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Normalized intensity versus angle of sample c in the case of angle gating for different time intervals.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Overlapping percentages between the signals of different gating methods.

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