Abstract

We demonstrate supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with two closely lying zero dispersion wavelengths. The special dispersion of the fiber has a profound influence on the supercontinuum which is generated through self-phase modulation and phasematched four-wave mixing and not soliton fission as in the initial photonic crystal fibers. The supercontinuum has high spectral density and is extremely independent of the input pulse over a wide range of input pulse parameters. Simulations show that the supercontinuum can be compressed to ultrashort pulses.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2003 (7)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. N. Paulsen, K. M. Hilligsøe, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman microscopy with a photonic crystal fiber based light source,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1123–1125 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gu, M. Kimmel, A. P. Shreenath, R. Trebino, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, and R. S. Windeler, “Experimental studies of the coherence of microstructure-fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 11, 2697–2703 (2003); http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2697.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Hilligsøe, H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and J. J. Larsen, “Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1887–1893 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers made from highly nonlinear glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 227–234 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. B. 77, 269–277 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, L. Provino, N. Grossard, H. Maillotte, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in air-silica microstructured fibers with nanosecond and femtosecond pulse pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 765–771 (2002).
[Crossref]

V. Nagarajan, E. Johnson, P. Schellenberg, W. Parson, and R. Windeler, “A compact versatile femtosecond spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4145–4149 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (5)

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001).

Anderson, D.

Belardi, W.

Berntson, A.

Boyer, G.

Chudoba, C.

Coen, S.

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. B. 77, 269–277 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S.

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. B. 77, 269–277 (2003).
[Crossref]

Diels, J.-C.

Dudley, J. M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Furusawa, K.

Ghanta, R. K.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grossard, N.

Gu, X.

Hall, B.

Hartl, I.

Herrmann, J.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers made from highly nonlinear glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 227–234 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hilligsøe, K. M.

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers made from highly nonlinear glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 227–234 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, E.

V. Nagarajan, E. Johnson, P. Schellenberg, W. Parson, and R. Windeler, “A compact versatile femtosecond spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4145–4149 (2002).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, M.

Keiding, S. R.

Kimmel, M.

Knight, J. C.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

Larsen, J. J.

Lee, J. H.

Li, X. D.

Lisak, M.

Maillotte, H.

Monro, T. M.

Müller, M.

J. Squier and M. Müller, “High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2855–2867 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nagarajan, V.

V. Nagarajan, E. Johnson, P. Schellenberg, W. Parson, and R. Windeler, “A compact versatile femtosecond spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4145–4149 (2002).
[Crossref]

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. B. 77, 269–277 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parson, W.

V. Nagarajan, E. Johnson, P. Schellenberg, W. Parson, and R. Windeler, “A compact versatile femtosecond spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4145–4149 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paulsen, H. N.

Petropoulos, P.

Provino, L.

Ranka, J. K.

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. S. J.

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schellenberg, P.

V. Nagarajan, E. Johnson, P. Schellenberg, W. Parson, and R. Windeler, “A compact versatile femtosecond spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4145–4149 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shreenath, A. P.

Squier, J.

J. Squier and M. Müller, “High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2855–2867 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stentz, A. J.

Thøgersen, J.

Trebino, R.

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. B. 77, 269–277 (2003).
[Crossref]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. B. 77, 269–277 (2003).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R.

V. Nagarajan, E. Johnson, P. Schellenberg, W. Parson, and R. Windeler, “A compact versatile femtosecond spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4145–4149 (2002).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

Wise, F.W.

Yanovsky, V. P.

Ye, J.

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers made from highly nonlinear glasses,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 227–234 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental amplitude noise limitations to supercontinuum spectra generated in a microstructured fiber,” Appl. Phys. B. 77, 269–277 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Experimental Evidence for Supercontinuum Generation by Fission of Higher-order Solitons in Photonic Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. T. Cundiff and J. Ye, “Femtosecond optical frequency combs,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 325–342 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

V. Nagarajan, E. Johnson, P. Schellenberg, W. Parson, and R. Windeler, “A compact versatile femtosecond spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4145–4149 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Squier and M. Müller, “High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optimal imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2855–2867 (2001).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299, 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (381 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A scanning electron micrograph image of the central region of the fiber cross section.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Dispersion properties of the photonic crystal fiber with zero dispersion at 780 nm and 945 nm. (b) Phase-matching curves for four-wave mixing in the fiber. Full curve: phase-matching without power-dependent term. Dashed curve: phase-matching with an input power of 300 W.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Experimental measurement of output spectra versus pulse energy for a 40 fs input pulse centered at 790 nm. (b) Theoretical simulation of the spectral evolution.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimentally recorded output spectra 40 fs, λ0=790 nm (black), 40 fs, λ0=810 nm (red) and a 40 fs, λ0=790 nm chirped to ~80 fs (blue). The pulse energy is 700 pJ for all pulses. (b) Simulated spectra for λ0=790 nm (black), λ0=700 nm (red) and λ0=1000 nm (blue). For all pulses the energy is 700 pJ and they are 40 fs long. (c) Simulated spectra for 40 fs, 700 pJ (black), 20 fs, 350 pJ (red) and 160 fs, 2800 pJ (blue). For all pulses λ0=790 nm. (d) Simulated spectra for an unchirped 40 fs pulse (black), upchirped to 80 fs (red) and downchirped to 80 fs (blue) pulses. For all pulses the energy is 700 pJ, λ0=790 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)-(f) Calculated spectrograms after propagation of (a) 0 cm, (b) 0.2 cm, (c) 0.5 cm, (d) 1 cm, (e) 2 cm and (f) 5 cm in the fiber for a 40 fs input pulse at 790 nm with a pulse energy of 700 pJ. The continuous development of the spectrogram during the 5 cm of propagation is illustrated in the corresponding movie “moviefig5.mpg” (size 0.4MB).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectrum (black) and phase (red) of the pulse after 5 cm for the 40 fs input pulse at 790 nm with a pulse energy of 700 pJ (also pictured in Fig. 5(f)). The phase of the pulse is well behaved and the visible peak in the spectrum can sustain a sub-10 fs pulse with λ0=640 nm.

Equations (5)

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β 2 ( ω ) = d 2 β ( ω ) d ω 2 .
Δ ω = ω S + ω I 2 ω P = 0 ,
Δ k = β ( ω S ) + β ( ω I ) 2 β ( ω P ) + Δ k NL = 0 .
d A ( z , t ) dz = D ̂ A ( z , t ) + i γ ( 1 + i ω 0 t ) ( A ( z , t ) d t R ( t ) A ( z , t t ) 2 ) ,
S ( z , t , ω ) = d t e i ω t e ( t t ) 2 α 2 A ( z , t ) ,

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