Abstract

Low power cw laser radiation at λ=1.32µm was coupled into a chemically etched, metalized Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) fiber probe to generate a stable microbubble in water as well as in other fluids. The microbubble, which was attached to the end face of the fiber probe, was used to trap, manipulate and mix micron sized glass, latex and fluorescent particles as well as biological material.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, “Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 94, 4853–4860 (1997).
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  3. D.T. Chiu, A. Hsiao, A. Gaggar, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Injection of ultrasmall samples and single molecules into tapered capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1801–1807 (1997).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R.B. Maxwell, A.L. Gerhardt, M. Toner, M.L. Gray, and M.A. Schmidt, “A microbubble-powered bioparticle actuator,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems 12,630–640 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. J.E. Fouquet, “Compact optical cross-connect switch based on total internal reflection in a fluid-containing planar lightwave circuit,” Trends Opt. Photon. 37,204–206 (2000).
  8. Chang-Jin- Kim, “Microfluidics using the surface tension force in microscale,” Proc. of SPIE 4177,49–55 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. S.Z. Hua, F. Sachs, D.X. Yang, and H.D. Chopra, “Microfluidic actuation using electrochemically generated bubbles,” Anal. Chem. 74,6392–6396 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. R.H. Liu, J. Yang, M.Z. Pindera, M. Athavale, and P. Grodzinski, “Bubble-induced acoustic micromixing,” Lab Chip 2, 151–157 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. P.E. Dyer, M.E. Khosroshahi, and S.J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fibre-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B.56, 84–93 (1993).
  12. M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Ton G. van Leeuwen, M.J. van der Veen, R.M. Verdaasdonk, and C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by Holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11, 26–34 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, and H.P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  15. K.F. MacDonald, V.A. Fedotov, S. Pochon, B.F. Soares, and N.I. Zheludev, “Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 68,027301–3 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. D.W. Berry, N.R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Effects associated with bubble formation in optical trapping,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575–1585 (2000).
  17. Y. Xin-Cheng, L. Zhao-Lin, G. Hong-Lian, C. Bing-Ying, and Z. Dao-Zhong, “Effects of spherical aberration on optical trapping forces for Rayleigh particles,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 432–434 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. R.S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, “High resolution index of refraction profiling of optical waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4833, 811–819 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. Sarid, Scanning Force Microscopy, (Oxford University press,Oxford,1994).
  22. Y. Otani, Y. Matsuba, and A. Osaka, “Microbubble actuator using photothermal effect,” Proc. SPIE 4902, 83–86 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  23. D.E. Yount, E.W. Gillary, and D.C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. Wang, C.C. Moser, and M.A. Wheatley, “Langmuir trough study of surfactant mixtures used in the production of a new ultrasound contrast agent consisting of stabilized microbubbles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13815–13821 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W.H. Wright, R.H. Asch, O. Vafa, and M.W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertility and Sterility 52, 870–873 (1989).
    [PubMed]
  26. A. Clement-Sengewald, K. Schutze, A. Ashkin, G.A. Palma, G. Kerlen, and G. Brem, “Fertilization of bovine Oocytes induced solely with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13, 259–265 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  27. D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2003 (5)

R.S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, “Particle trapping in 3-D using a single fiber probe with an annular light distribution,” Opt. Express 11, 2775–2782 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2775
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.B. Maxwell, A.L. Gerhardt, M. Toner, M.L. Gray, and M.A. Schmidt, “A microbubble-powered bioparticle actuator,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems 12,630–640 (2003).
[Crossref]

K.F. MacDonald, V.A. Fedotov, S. Pochon, B.F. Soares, and N.I. Zheludev, “Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 68,027301–3 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
[Crossref]

R.S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, “High resolution index of refraction profiling of optical waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4833, 811–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

Y. Otani, Y. Matsuba, and A. Osaka, “Microbubble actuator using photothermal effect,” Proc. SPIE 4902, 83–86 (2002).
[Crossref]

S.Z. Hua, F. Sachs, D.X. Yang, and H.D. Chopra, “Microfluidic actuation using electrochemically generated bubbles,” Anal. Chem. 74,6392–6396 (2002).
[Crossref]

R.H. Liu, J. Yang, M.Z. Pindera, M. Athavale, and P. Grodzinski, “Bubble-induced acoustic micromixing,” Lab Chip 2, 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. Xin-Cheng, L. Zhao-Lin, G. Hong-Lian, C. Bing-Ying, and Z. Dao-Zhong, “Effects of spherical aberration on optical trapping forces for Rayleigh particles,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 432–434 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

D.W. Berry, N.R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Effects associated with bubble formation in optical trapping,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575–1585 (2000).

J.-C. Meiners and S.R. Quake, “Femtonewton force spectroscopy of single extended DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5014–5017 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.E. Fouquet, “Compact optical cross-connect switch based on total internal reflection in a fluid-containing planar lightwave circuit,” Trends Opt. Photon. 37,204–206 (2000).

Chang-Jin- Kim, “Microfluidics using the surface tension force in microscale,” Proc. of SPIE 4177,49–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D.T. Chiu, A. Hsiao, A. Gaggar, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Injection of ultrasmall samples and single molecules into tapered capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1801–1807 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, “Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 94, 4853–4860 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Clement-Sengewald, K. Schutze, A. Ashkin, G.A. Palma, G. Kerlen, and G. Brem, “Fertilization of bovine Oocytes induced solely with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13, 259–265 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, C.C. Moser, and M.A. Wheatley, “Langmuir trough study of surfactant mixtures used in the production of a new ultrasound contrast agent consisting of stabilized microbubbles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13815–13821 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, and H.P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P.E. Dyer, M.E. Khosroshahi, and S.J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fibre-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B.56, 84–93 (1993).

1992 (1)

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Ton G. van Leeuwen, M.J. van der Veen, R.M. Verdaasdonk, and C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by Holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11, 26–34 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W.H. Wright, R.H. Asch, O. Vafa, and M.W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertility and Sterility 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

1984 (1)

D.E. Yount, E.W. Gillary, and D.C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[Crossref]

Asch, R.H.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W.H. Wright, R.H. Asch, O. Vafa, and M.W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertility and Sterility 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 94, 4853–4860 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Clement-Sengewald, K. Schutze, A. Ashkin, G.A. Palma, G. Kerlen, and G. Brem, “Fertilization of bovine Oocytes induced solely with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13, 259–265 (1996).
[Crossref]

Athavale, M.

R.H. Liu, J. Yang, M.Z. Pindera, M. Athavale, and P. Grodzinski, “Bubble-induced acoustic micromixing,” Lab Chip 2, 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

Berns, M.W.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W.H. Wright, R.H. Asch, O. Vafa, and M.W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertility and Sterility 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Berry, D.W.

D.W. Berry, N.R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Effects associated with bubble formation in optical trapping,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575–1585 (2000).

Bing-Ying, C.

Y. Xin-Cheng, L. Zhao-Lin, G. Hong-Lian, C. Bing-Ying, and Z. Dao-Zhong, “Effects of spherical aberration on optical trapping forces for Rayleigh particles,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 432–434 (2001).
[Crossref]

Borst, C.

Ton G. van Leeuwen, M.J. van der Veen, R.M. Verdaasdonk, and C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by Holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11, 26–34 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brem, G.

A. Clement-Sengewald, K. Schutze, A. Ashkin, G.A. Palma, G. Kerlen, and G. Brem, “Fertilization of bovine Oocytes induced solely with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13, 259–265 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burgos, P.

P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chiu, D.T.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

D.T. Chiu, A. Hsiao, A. Gaggar, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Injection of ultrasmall samples and single molecules into tapered capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1801–1807 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chopra, H.D.

S.Z. Hua, F. Sachs, D.X. Yang, and H.D. Chopra, “Microfluidic actuation using electrochemically generated bubbles,” Anal. Chem. 74,6392–6396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Clement-Sengewald, A.

A. Clement-Sengewald, K. Schutze, A. Ashkin, G.A. Palma, G. Kerlen, and G. Brem, “Fertilization of bovine Oocytes induced solely with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13, 259–265 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dao-Zhong, Z.

Y. Xin-Cheng, L. Zhao-Lin, G. Hong-Lian, C. Bing-Ying, and Z. Dao-Zhong, “Effects of spherical aberration on optical trapping forces for Rayleigh particles,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 432–434 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dyer, P.E.

P.E. Dyer, M.E. Khosroshahi, and S.J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fibre-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B.56, 84–93 (1993).

Farre, C.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, V.A.

K.F. MacDonald, V.A. Fedotov, S. Pochon, B.F. Soares, and N.I. Zheludev, “Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 68,027301–3 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fouquet, J.E.

J.E. Fouquet, “Compact optical cross-connect switch based on total internal reflection in a fluid-containing planar lightwave circuit,” Trends Opt. Photon. 37,204–206 (2000).

Frenz, M.

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, and H.P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gaggar, A.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

D.T. Chiu, A. Hsiao, A. Gaggar, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Injection of ultrasmall samples and single molecules into tapered capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1801–1807 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garza-Lopez, R.A.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

D.T. Chiu, A. Hsiao, A. Gaggar, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Injection of ultrasmall samples and single molecules into tapered capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1801–1807 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerhardt, A.L.

R.B. Maxwell, A.L. Gerhardt, M. Toner, M.L. Gray, and M.A. Schmidt, “A microbubble-powered bioparticle actuator,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems 12,630–640 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gillary, E.W.

D.E. Yount, E.W. Gillary, and D.C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[Crossref]

Gray, M.L.

R.B. Maxwell, A.L. Gerhardt, M. Toner, M.L. Gray, and M.A. Schmidt, “A microbubble-powered bioparticle actuator,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems 12,630–640 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grodzinski, P.

R.H. Liu, J. Yang, M.Z. Pindera, M. Athavale, and P. Grodzinski, “Bubble-induced acoustic micromixing,” Lab Chip 2, 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

Heckenberg, N.R.

D.W. Berry, N.R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Effects associated with bubble formation in optical trapping,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575–1585 (2000).

Hnatovsky, C.

P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
[Crossref]

R.S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, “High resolution index of refraction profiling of optical waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4833, 811–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

R.S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, “Particle trapping in 3-D using a single fiber probe with an annular light distribution,” Opt. Express 11, 2775–2782 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2775
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffman, D.C.

D.E. Yount, E.W. Gillary, and D.C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hong-Lian, G.

Y. Xin-Cheng, L. Zhao-Lin, G. Hong-Lian, C. Bing-Ying, and Z. Dao-Zhong, “Effects of spherical aberration on optical trapping forces for Rayleigh particles,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 432–434 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hsiao, A.

D.T. Chiu, A. Hsiao, A. Gaggar, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Injection of ultrasmall samples and single molecules into tapered capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1801–1807 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, S.Z.

S.Z. Hua, F. Sachs, D.X. Yang, and H.D. Chopra, “Microfluidic actuation using electrochemically generated bubbles,” Anal. Chem. 74,6392–6396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ianoul, A.

P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ith, M.

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, and H.P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[Crossref]

Johnston, L.J.

P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, A.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kerlen, G.

A. Clement-Sengewald, K. Schutze, A. Ashkin, G.A. Palma, G. Kerlen, and G. Brem, “Fertilization of bovine Oocytes induced solely with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13, 259–265 (1996).
[Crossref]

Khosroshahi, M.E.

P.E. Dyer, M.E. Khosroshahi, and S.J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fibre-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B.56, 84–93 (1993).

Kim, Chang-Jin-

Chang-Jin- Kim, “Microfluidics using the surface tension force in microscale,” Proc. of SPIE 4177,49–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.H.

R.H. Liu, J. Yang, M.Z. Pindera, M. Athavale, and P. Grodzinski, “Bubble-induced acoustic micromixing,” Lab Chip 2, 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
[Crossref]

MacDonald, K.F.

K.F. MacDonald, V.A. Fedotov, S. Pochon, B.F. Soares, and N.I. Zheludev, “Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 68,027301–3 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matsuba, Y.

Y. Otani, Y. Matsuba, and A. Osaka, “Microbubble actuator using photothermal effect,” Proc. SPIE 4902, 83–86 (2002).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, R.B.

R.B. Maxwell, A.L. Gerhardt, M. Toner, M.L. Gray, and M.A. Schmidt, “A microbubble-powered bioparticle actuator,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems 12,630–640 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meiners, J.-C.

J.-C. Meiners and S.R. Quake, “Femtonewton force spectroscopy of single extended DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5014–5017 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modi, B.P.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

Moscho, A.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

Moser, C.C.

W. Wang, C.C. Moser, and M.A. Wheatley, “Langmuir trough study of surfactant mixtures used in the production of a new ultrasound contrast agent consisting of stabilized microbubbles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13815–13821 (1996).
[Crossref]

Moyer, P.J.

M.A. Paesler and P.J. Moyer, “Near-Field Optics,” (J. Wiley and sons,New York1996).

Nordholm, S.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ohsawa, H.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ord, T.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W.H. Wright, R.H. Asch, O. Vafa, and M.W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertility and Sterility 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Orwar, O.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

D.T. Chiu, A. Hsiao, A. Gaggar, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Injection of ultrasmall samples and single molecules into tapered capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1801–1807 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osaka, A.

Y. Otani, Y. Matsuba, and A. Osaka, “Microbubble actuator using photothermal effect,” Proc. SPIE 4902, 83–86 (2002).
[Crossref]

Otani, Y.

Y. Otani, Y. Matsuba, and A. Osaka, “Microbubble actuator using photothermal effect,” Proc. SPIE 4902, 83–86 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paesler, M.A.

M.A. Paesler and P.J. Moyer, “Near-Field Optics,” (J. Wiley and sons,New York1996).

Palma, G.A.

A. Clement-Sengewald, K. Schutze, A. Ashkin, G.A. Palma, G. Kerlen, and G. Brem, “Fertilization of bovine Oocytes induced solely with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13, 259–265 (1996).
[Crossref]

Paltauf, G.

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pangaribuan, T.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pindera, M.Z.

R.H. Liu, J. Yang, M.Z. Pindera, M. Athavale, and P. Grodzinski, “Bubble-induced acoustic micromixing,” Lab Chip 2, 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pochon, S.

K.F. MacDonald, V.A. Fedotov, S. Pochon, B.F. Soares, and N.I. Zheludev, “Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 68,027301–3 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pratisto, H.

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, and H.P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[Crossref]

Quake, S.R.

J.-C. Meiners and S.R. Quake, “Femtonewton force spectroscopy of single extended DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5014–5017 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

D.W. Berry, N.R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Effects associated with bubble formation in optical trapping,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575–1585 (2000).

Ryttsen, F.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sachs, F.

S.Z. Hua, F. Sachs, D.X. Yang, and H.D. Chopra, “Microfluidic actuation using electrochemically generated bubbles,” Anal. Chem. 74,6392–6396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid, Scanning Force Microscopy, (Oxford University press,Oxford,1994).

Schmidt, M.A.

R.B. Maxwell, A.L. Gerhardt, M. Toner, M.L. Gray, and M.A. Schmidt, “A microbubble-powered bioparticle actuator,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems 12,630–640 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schmidt-Kloiber, H.

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schutze, K.

A. Clement-Sengewald, K. Schutze, A. Ashkin, G.A. Palma, G. Kerlen, and G. Brem, “Fertilization of bovine Oocytes induced solely with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13, 259–265 (1996).
[Crossref]

Soares, B.F.

K.F. MacDonald, V.A. Fedotov, S. Pochon, B.F. Soares, and N.I. Zheludev, “Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 68,027301–3 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stromberg, A.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tadir, Y.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W.H. Wright, R.H. Asch, O. Vafa, and M.W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertility and Sterility 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Taylor, R.S.

P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
[Crossref]

R.S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, “High resolution index of refraction profiling of optical waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4833, 811–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

R.S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, “Particle trapping in 3-D using a single fiber probe with an annular light distribution,” Opt. Express 11, 2775–2782 (2003). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-21-2775
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toner, M.

R.B. Maxwell, A.L. Gerhardt, M. Toner, M.L. Gray, and M.A. Schmidt, “A microbubble-powered bioparticle actuator,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems 12,630–640 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tuft, S.J.

P.E. Dyer, M.E. Khosroshahi, and S.J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fibre-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B.56, 84–93 (1993).

Vafa, O.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W.H. Wright, R.H. Asch, O. Vafa, and M.W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertility and Sterility 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

van der Veen, M.J.

Ton G. van Leeuwen, M.J. van der Veen, R.M. Verdaasdonk, and C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by Holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11, 26–34 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, Ton G.

Ton G. van Leeuwen, M.J. van der Veen, R.M. Verdaasdonk, and C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by Holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11, 26–34 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verdaasdonk, R.M.

Ton G. van Leeuwen, M.J. van der Veen, R.M. Verdaasdonk, and C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by Holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11, 26–34 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viriot, M.-L.

P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, C.C. Moser, and M.A. Wheatley, “Langmuir trough study of surfactant mixtures used in the production of a new ultrasound contrast agent consisting of stabilized microbubbles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13815–13821 (1996).
[Crossref]

Weber, H.P.

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, and H.P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wheatley, M.A.

W. Wang, C.C. Moser, and M.A. Wheatley, “Langmuir trough study of surfactant mixtures used in the production of a new ultrasound contrast agent consisting of stabilized microbubbles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13815–13821 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wilson, C.F.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wright, W.H.

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W.H. Wright, R.H. Asch, O. Vafa, and M.W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertility and Sterility 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

Xin-Cheng, Y.

Y. Xin-Cheng, L. Zhao-Lin, G. Hong-Lian, C. Bing-Ying, and Z. Dao-Zhong, “Effects of spherical aberration on optical trapping forces for Rayleigh particles,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 432–434 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.X.

S.Z. Hua, F. Sachs, D.X. Yang, and H.D. Chopra, “Microfluidic actuation using electrochemically generated bubbles,” Anal. Chem. 74,6392–6396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

R.H. Liu, J. Yang, M.Z. Pindera, M. Athavale, and P. Grodzinski, “Bubble-induced acoustic micromixing,” Lab Chip 2, 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yount, D.E.

D.E. Yount, E.W. Gillary, and D.C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[Crossref]

Zare, R.N.

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

D.T. Chiu, A. Hsiao, A. Gaggar, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Injection of ultrasmall samples and single molecules into tapered capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1801–1807 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao-Lin, L.

Y. Xin-Cheng, L. Zhao-Lin, G. Hong-Lian, C. Bing-Ying, and Z. Dao-Zhong, “Effects of spherical aberration on optical trapping forces for Rayleigh particles,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 432–434 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N.I.

K.F. MacDonald, V.A. Fedotov, S. Pochon, B.F. Soares, and N.I. Zheludev, “Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 68,027301–3 (2003).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (2)

D.T. Chiu, A. Hsiao, A. Gaggar, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Injection of ultrasmall samples and single molecules into tapered capillaries,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1801–1807 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.Z. Hua, F. Sachs, D.X. Yang, and H.D. Chopra, “Microfluidic actuation using electrochemically generated bubbles,” Anal. Chem. 74,6392–6396 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. (1)

P.E. Dyer, M.E. Khosroshahi, and S.J. Tuft, “Studies of laser-induced cavitation and tissue ablation in saline using a fibre-delivered pulsed HF laser,” Appl. Phys. B.56, 84–93 (1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Pratisto, M. Ith, M. Frenz, and H.P. Weber, “Infrared multiwavelength laser system for establishing a surgical delivery path through water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1963–1965 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Xin-Cheng, L. Zhao-Lin, G. Hong-Lian, C. Bing-Ying, and Z. Dao-Zhong, “Effects of spherical aberration on optical trapping forces for Rayleigh particles,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 18, 432–434 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fertility and Sterility (1)

Y. Tadir, T. Ord, W.H. Wright, R.H. Asch, O. Vafa, and M.W. Berns, “Micromanipulation of sperm by a laser generated optical trap,” Fertility and Sterility 52, 870–873 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

D.E. Yount, E.W. Gillary, and D.C. Hoffman, “A microscopic investigation of bubble formation nuclei,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 76, 1511–1521 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Microscopy (1)

P. Burgos, Z. Lu, A. Ianoul, C. Hnatovsky, M.-L. Viriot, L.J. Johnston, and R.S. Taylor, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy probes:a comparison of pulled and double-etched bent NSOM probes for fluorescence imaging of biological samples,” J. Microscopy 211, 37–47 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

D.W. Berry, N.R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Effects associated with bubble formation in optical trapping,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1575–1585 (2000).

J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics (1)

A. Clement-Sengewald, K. Schutze, A. Ashkin, G.A. Palma, G. Kerlen, and G. Brem, “Fertilization of bovine Oocytes induced solely with combined laser microbeam and optical tweezers,” J. of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 13, 259–265 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. of Microelectromechanical Systems (1)

R.B. Maxwell, A.L. Gerhardt, M. Toner, M.L. Gray, and M.A. Schmidt, “A microbubble-powered bioparticle actuator,” J. of Microelectromechanical Systems 12,630–640 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. Wang, C.C. Moser, and M.A. Wheatley, “Langmuir trough study of surfactant mixtures used in the production of a new ultrasound contrast agent consisting of stabilized microbubbles,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13815–13821 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Pangaribuan, K. Yamada, S. Jiang, H. Ohsawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1302–L1304 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

R.H. Liu, J. Yang, M.Z. Pindera, M. Athavale, and P. Grodzinski, “Bubble-induced acoustic micromixing,” Lab Chip 2, 151–157 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine (1)

Ton G. van Leeuwen, M.J. van der Veen, R.M. Verdaasdonk, and C. Borst, “Noncontact tissue ablation by Holmium:YSGG laser pulses in blood,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11, 26–34 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

K.F. MacDonald, V.A. Fedotov, S. Pochon, B.F. Soares, and N.I. Zheludev, “Oscillating bubbles at the tips of optical fibers in liquid nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 68,027301–3 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Frenz, G. Paltauf, and H. Schmidt-Kloiber, “Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3546–3549 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-C. Meiners and S.R. Quake, “Femtonewton force spectroscopy of single extended DNA molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5014–5017 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA (1)

A. Ashkin, “Optical trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 94, 4853–4860 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. of SPIE (1)

Chang-Jin- Kim, “Microfluidics using the surface tension force in microscale,” Proc. of SPIE 4177,49–55 (2000).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R.S. Taylor and C. Hnatovsky, “High resolution index of refraction profiling of optical waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 4833, 811–819 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Otani, Y. Matsuba, and A. Osaka, “Microbubble actuator using photothermal effect,” Proc. SPIE 4902, 83–86 (2002).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

D.T. Chiu, C.F. Wilson, F. Ryttsen, A. Stromberg, C. Farre, A. Karlsson, S. Nordholm, A. Gaggar, B.P. Modi, A. Moscho, R.A. Garza-Lopez, O. Orwar, and R.N. Zare, “Chemical transformations in individual ultrasmall biomimetic containers,” Science 283(5409), 1892–1895 (1999).
[Crossref]

Trends Opt. Photon. (1)

J.E. Fouquet, “Compact optical cross-connect switch based on total internal reflection in a fluid-containing planar lightwave circuit,” Trends Opt. Photon. 37,204–206 (2000).

Other (2)

M.A. Paesler and P.J. Moyer, “Near-Field Optics,” (J. Wiley and sons,New York1996).

D. Sarid, Scanning Force Microscopy, (Oxford University press,Oxford,1994).

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: MOV (970 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1225 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2619 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (13771 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (636 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental layout.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron microscope image of a selectively chemically etched conical tapered Fibercore Inc. probe tip showing a hollow central region.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Left: Photograph showing the pulling capability of a microbubble firmly attached to the flat fiber cladding surface. A second fiber covered with 2µm diameter glass spheres is shown to the left in this figure, Right: Picture of a microbubble just after delicately picking up a single 2µm glass sphere.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Video (970Kb) showing a ≈100µm diameter bubble “vacuum cleaning” 2µm diameter glass spheres stuck to a ≈20µm diameter fiber. The conical tip can be seen inside the bubble on the left. In this case the fiber probe was pre-etched to reduce its diameter. The picture on the right shows a number of 2µm glass particles which collected on the bottom surface of the bubble after vacuum cleaning.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photograph of patches of agglomerated 1µm latex spheres trapped on the surface of a microbubble. The width of the image is 120µm. The video (1.2Mb) shows the fiber probe launching a bubble in a water solution containing 1µm latex spheres and the subsequent condensation of a large number of the spheres onto the bubble surface.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Video (short version 2.5Mb) showing a shower of solid 2µm diameter glass spheres converging in an initially pulsating manner from mms away onto the top surface of a ≈350µm diameter bubble which was being heated with ≈20mW of laser power coupled into the fiber probe. The spheres form a monolayer on the bubble surface. The first clip of the long version of the video (13.8Mb) shows cyclonic mixing of ≈104 microspheres on the bubble surface. When the laser was blocked the mixing stopped almost immediately. The second clip shows a ≈20µm diameter fiber being inserted into the bubble and used to remove the bubble from the fiber probe. The last clip shows that when a second bubble with glass microspheres is brought close to the fiber probe containing a bubble which is mixing other microspheres the convective flow is transfered to the second bubble to mix those trapped particles as well.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic diagram showing the flow patterns which generally occured on and in the vicinity of a heated microbubble.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Video (634Kb) shows an enlargement of the two counterpropagating cyclonic flow regions on the surface of a bubble in water made visible using 1µm diameter latex spheres. The width of the image is ≈50µm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Left: Image of a Daphnia trapped on the backside of a newly generated microbubble. Right: Image of the tiny crustacean moving away after release from the fiber probe.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Photograph of a Pt-coated hemispherically tipped large core pre-etched fiber heated in air to a white hot temperature using ≈25mW of λ=1.32µm laser light coupled into the fiber probe. (b) Top view of a metalized Fibercore Inc. selectively chemically etched fiber probe in air. Approximately 30mW of laser power was coupled into the probe. A focussed ion beam was used to remove the metal coating inside a 30 µm×30 µm square region but leaving the metal on the conical structure. The heated tip glows white hot while the regions near the base of the probe are relatively cold.

Metrics