Abstract

We report the fabrication of internal diffraction gratings in calcium fluoride crystals by a focused near-IR 800 nm femtosecond laser. The diffraction efficiency and refractive index change were evaluated after femtosecond laser irradiation and subsequent annealing. The maximum refractive index change was estimated to be 3.57×10-4. Optical absorption spectra, measured for the crystals before and after the laser irradiation and subsequent annealing, indicate that the absorbance increase after femtosecond laser irradiation and decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The mechanisms of refractive index change are proposed. The results may be useful for fabrication of three-dimensional integrated optics devices in the crystals.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Lindner, U. Stamm, R. Pätzel, and D. Basting, “Advanced ArF excimer laser for 193 nm lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 75–78 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Itani and W. Wakamiya, “Progress in 157-nm lithography development for 70-nm node,” Microelectron. Eng. 61– 62, 49–55 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Ausín and J. L. Alvarez Rivas, “Gamma-ray-induced color in CaF2 at room temperature: Coloring kinetics and thermal annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 775–80 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Smakula, “Color centers in Calcium Fluoride and Barium Fluoride Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 77, 408–409 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–31 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–31 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, “Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1311–13 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26, 325–27 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858–60 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–47 (1969).
  13. J. T. Mouchovski, I. V. Haltakov, and V. L. Lyutskanov, “Growth of ultra-violet grade CaF2 crystals and their application for excimer laser optics,” J. Cryst. Growth 162, 79–82 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858–60 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Itani and W. Wakamiya, “Progress in 157-nm lithography development for 70-nm node,” Microelectron. Eng. 61– 62, 49–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26, 325–27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

R. Lindner, U. Stamm, R. Pätzel, and D. Basting, “Advanced ArF excimer laser for 193 nm lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 75–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Mouchovski, I. V. Haltakov, and V. L. Lyutskanov, “Growth of ultra-violet grade CaF2 crystals and their application for excimer laser optics,” J. Cryst. Growth 162, 79–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

V. Ausín and J. L. Alvarez Rivas, “Gamma-ray-induced color in CaF2 at room temperature: Coloring kinetics and thermal annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 775–80 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–47 (1969).

1950 (1)

A. Smakula, “Color centers in Calcium Fluoride and Barium Fluoride Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 77, 408–409 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez Rivas, J. L.

V. Ausín and J. L. Alvarez Rivas, “Gamma-ray-induced color in CaF2 at room temperature: Coloring kinetics and thermal annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 775–80 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ausín, V.

V. Ausín and J. L. Alvarez Rivas, “Gamma-ray-induced color in CaF2 at room temperature: Coloring kinetics and thermal annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 775–80 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Basting, D.

R. Lindner, U. Stamm, R. Pätzel, and D. Basting, “Advanced ArF excimer laser for 193 nm lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 75–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Davis, K. M.

Gaeta, A. L.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Homoelle, S. Wielandy, A. L. Gaeta, N. F. Borrelli, and C. Smith, “Infrared photosensitivity in silica glasses exposed to femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1311–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haltakov, I. V.

J. T. Mouchovski, I. V. Haltakov, and V. L. Lyutskanov, “Growth of ultra-violet grade CaF2 crystals and their application for excimer laser optics,” J. Cryst. Growth 162, 79–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homoelle, D.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itani, T.

T. Itani and W. Wakamiya, “Progress in 157-nm lithography development for 70-nm node,” Microelectron. Eng. 61– 62, 49–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858–60 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kazansky, P. G.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–47 (1969).

Kojima, K.

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, R.

R. Lindner, U. Stamm, R. Pätzel, and D. Basting, “Advanced ArF excimer laser for 193 nm lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 75–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lyutskanov, V. L.

J. T. Mouchovski, I. V. Haltakov, and V. L. Lyutskanov, “Growth of ultra-violet grade CaF2 crystals and their application for excimer laser optics,” J. Cryst. Growth 162, 79–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Misawa, H.

Mitsuyu, T.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1729–31 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mouchovski, J. T.

J. T. Mouchovski, I. V. Haltakov, and V. L. Lyutskanov, “Growth of ultra-violet grade CaF2 crystals and their application for excimer laser optics,” J. Cryst. Growth 162, 79–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakaya, T.

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Ogura, F.

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pätzel, R.

R. Lindner, U. Stamm, R. Pätzel, and D. Basting, “Advanced ArF excimer laser for 193 nm lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 75–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858–60 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smakula, A.

A. Smakula, “Color centers in Calcium Fluoride and Barium Fluoride Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 77, 408–409 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

Stamm, U.

R. Lindner, U. Stamm, R. Pätzel, and D. Basting, “Advanced ArF excimer laser for 193 nm lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 75–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, H.

Sun, K.

Wakamiya, W.

T. Itani and W. Wakamiya, “Progress in 157-nm lithography development for 70-nm node,” Microelectron. Eng. 61– 62, 49–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Wielandy, S.

Xu, Y.

Yang, L.

Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858–60 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858–60 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858–60 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858–60 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1940–42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, F. Ogura, K. Kojima, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3567–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–47 (1969).

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and C. Zhu, “Fabrication of microstructures in LiF crystals by a femtosecond laser,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 20, 1858–60 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. T. Mouchovski, I. V. Haltakov, and V. L. Lyutskanov, “Growth of ultra-violet grade CaF2 crystals and their application for excimer laser optics,” J. Cryst. Growth 162, 79–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

R. Lindner, U. Stamm, R. Pätzel, and D. Basting, “Advanced ArF excimer laser for 193 nm lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 41/42, 75–78 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Itani and W. Wakamiya, “Progress in 157-nm lithography development for 70-nm node,” Microelectron. Eng. 61– 62, 49–55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Smakula, “Color centers in Calcium Fluoride and Barium Fluoride Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 77, 408–409 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Ausín and J. L. Alvarez Rivas, “Gamma-ray-induced color in CaF2 at room temperature: Coloring kinetics and thermal annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 775–80 (1974).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Internal diffraction grating structures fabricated by scanning CaF2 crystals sample by a femtosecond laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diffraction efficiency as function of diffraction spot orders.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diffraction efficiency and refractive index change as functions of annealing temperature for femtosecond laser irradiated CaF2 crystals sample.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absorption spectra of CaF2 crystals sample before (a) and after femtosecond laser irradiation (b), and subsequent annealing at 200°C (c) and 400°C (d) for 1 h.

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