Abstract

Multiple low index particles (micrometer-sized ultrasound contrast agent), have been optically trapped using a 4×4 Laguerre-Gaussian trap array. The trapping efficiency of the Laguerre-Gaussian arrangement was measured using a Stokes’ flow approach whereby the critical relative fluid velocity required to remove particles from the optical trap was measured. The dependence of trapping efficiency on beam power was also explored and the optimum beam parameters were identified. Finally, the utility of the array as a selective filter was demonstrated by tweezing multiple low-index particles from a population exhibiting an inherent distribution in size. This procedure represents a unique remote non-contact process that may have significant applicability throughout the fields of biophysics and biotechnology.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, J.M. Dziedzic, J.E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11, 288 (1986)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  3. H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
    [Crossref]
  4. M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101 (2002)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145 (2002)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  7. K.T. Gahagan and G.A. Swartzlander, “Trapping of low index particles in an optical vortex,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 524 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  8. M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. Riches, “Trapping and manipulation of low index particles in a 2D interferometric trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863 (2001)
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. E.R. Dufresne, G.C. Spalding, M.T. Dearing, S.A. Sheets, and D. Grier, “Computer generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 72, 1810 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Voros, “The density and refractive index of absorbing protein layers,” (to be published in Biophysical Journal (2004))
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    [Crossref]
  13. A.T. O’Neill and M.J. Padgett, “Axial and lateral trapping efficiency of Laguerre Gaussian modes in inverted optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 193, 45 (2001)
    [Crossref]
  14. W.H. Wright, G.J. Sonek, and M.W. Berns, “Parametric Study of the forces on microspheres held by optical tweezers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1736 (1994)
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R.C. Gauthier, “Laser trapping properties of dual component spheres,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7135 (2002)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

R.C. Gauthier, “Laser trapping properties of dual component spheres,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7135 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. Riches, “Trapping and manipulation of low index particles in a 2D interferometric trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863 (2001)
[Crossref]

E.R. Dufresne, G.C. Spalding, M.T. Dearing, S.A. Sheets, and D. Grier, “Computer generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 72, 1810 (2001)
[Crossref]

A.T. O’Neill and M.J. Padgett, “Axial and lateral trapping efficiency of Laguerre Gaussian modes in inverted optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 193, 45 (2001)
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

K.T. Gahagan and G.A. Swartzlander, “Trapping of low index particles in an optical vortex,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 524 (1998)
[Crossref]

N.B. Simpson, L. Allen, and M.J. Padgett “Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943 (1998)
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

W.H. Wright, G.J. Sonek, and M.W. Berns, “Parametric Study of the forces on microspheres held by optical tweezers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1736 (1994)
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. Sato and H. Inaba, “Achievement of laser fusion of biological cells using UV pulsed laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 531 (1992)
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

Allen, L.

N.B. Simpson, L. Allen, and M.J. Padgett “Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943 (1998)
[Crossref]

Andrews, J.

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

Arlt, J.

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

Berns, M.

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

Berns, M.W.

W.H. Wright, G.J. Sonek, and M.W. Berns, “Parametric Study of the forces on microspheres held by optical tweezers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1736 (1994)
[Crossref]

Bjorkholm, J.E.

Chu, S.

Daria, V.R.

Dearing, M.T.

E.R. Dufresne, G.C. Spalding, M.T. Dearing, S.A. Sheets, and D. Grier, “Computer generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 72, 1810 (2001)
[Crossref]

Dholakia, K.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. Riches, “Trapping and manipulation of low index particles in a 2D interferometric trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863 (2001)
[Crossref]

Dufresne, E.R.

E.R. Dufresne, G.C. Spalding, M.T. Dearing, S.A. Sheets, and D. Grier, “Computer generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 72, 1810 (2001)
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J.M.

Eriksen, R.E.

Gahagan, K.T.

Garces-Chavez, V.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauthier, R.C.

Gluckstad, J.

Grier, D.

E.R. Dufresne, G.C. Spalding, M.T. Dearing, S.A. Sheets, and D. Grier, “Computer generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 72, 1810 (2001)
[Crossref]

Inaba, H.

S. Sato and H. Inaba, “Achievement of laser fusion of biological cells using UV pulsed laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 531 (1992)
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.G.

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

MacDonald, M.P.

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. Riches, “Trapping and manipulation of low index particles in a 2D interferometric trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863 (2001)
[Crossref]

McGloin, D.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melville, H.

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Neill, A.T.

A.T. O’Neill and M.J. Padgett, “Axial and lateral trapping efficiency of Laguerre Gaussian modes in inverted optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 193, 45 (2001)
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.J.

A.T. O’Neill and M.J. Padgett, “Axial and lateral trapping efficiency of Laguerre Gaussian modes in inverted optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 193, 45 (2001)
[Crossref]

N.B. Simpson, L. Allen, and M.J. Padgett “Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943 (1998)
[Crossref]

Paterson, L.

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. Riches, “Trapping and manipulation of low index particles in a 2D interferometric trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863 (2001)
[Crossref]

Proteta, G.

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

Riches, A.

Rieder, C.L.

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

Rodrigo, P.J.

Salmon, E.D.

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

Sato, S.

S. Sato and H. Inaba, “Achievement of laser fusion of biological cells using UV pulsed laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 531 (1992)
[Crossref]

Sheets, S.A.

E.R. Dufresne, G.C. Spalding, M.T. Dearing, S.A. Sheets, and D. Grier, “Computer generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 72, 1810 (2001)
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, W. Sibbett, K. Dholakia, and A. Riches, “Trapping and manipulation of low index particles in a 2D interferometric trap,” Opt. Lett. 26, 863 (2001)
[Crossref]

Simpson, N.B.

N.B. Simpson, L. Allen, and M.J. Padgett “Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943 (1998)
[Crossref]

Sonek, G.J.

W.H. Wright, G.J. Sonek, and M.W. Berns, “Parametric Study of the forces on microspheres held by optical tweezers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1736 (1994)
[Crossref]

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

Spalding, G.C.

E.R. Dufresne, G.C. Spalding, M.T. Dearing, S.A. Sheets, and D. Grier, “Computer generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 72, 1810 (2001)
[Crossref]

Swartzlander, G.A.

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voros, J.

J. Voros, “The density and refractive index of absorbing protein layers,” (to be published in Biophysical Journal (2004))

Wright, W.H.

W.H. Wright, G.J. Sonek, and M.W. Berns, “Parametric Study of the forces on microspheres held by optical tweezers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1736 (1994)
[Crossref]

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

W.H. Wright, G.J. Sonek, and M.W. Berns, “Parametric Study of the forces on microspheres held by optical tweezers,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1736 (1994)
[Crossref]

R.C. Gauthier, “Laser trapping properties of dual component spheres,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7135 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Sato and H. Inaba, “Achievement of laser fusion of biological cells using UV pulsed laser beams,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 531 (1992)
[Crossref]

Experimental Cell Res. (1)

H. Liang, W.H. Wright, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon, G. Proteta, J. Andrews, Y.G. Liu, G.J. Sonek, and M. Berns, “Micromanipulation of chromosomes in PtK2 cells using laser microsurgery in combination with laser induced optical forces,” Experimental Cell Res. 204, 110 (1993)
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N.B. Simpson, L. Allen, and M.J. Padgett “Optical tweezers with increased axial trapping efficiency,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1943 (1998)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

V. Garces-Chavez, D. McGloin, H. Melville, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Simultaneous micromanipulation in multiple planes using a self reconstructing light beam,” Nature 419, 145 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A.T. O’Neill and M.J. Padgett, “Axial and lateral trapping efficiency of Laguerre Gaussian modes in inverted optical tweezers,” Opt. Commun. 193, 45 (2001)
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instruments (1)

E.R. Dufresne, G.C. Spalding, M.T. Dearing, S.A. Sheets, and D. Grier, “Computer generated holographic optical tweezer arrays,” Rev. Sci. Instruments 72, 1810 (2001)
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M.P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, “Creation and manipulation of three-dimensional optically trapped structures,” Science 296, 1101 (2002)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. Voros, “The density and refractive index of absorbing protein layers,” (to be published in Biophysical Journal (2004))

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of tweezing set-up. L – lens, M – Mirror, H1 – LG hologram, BG – IR filter, H2 – 4×4 hologram.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The intensity distribution at the focal plane of the objective on illuminating the hexadeca DOE with a standard Gaussian beam. (b) The intensity distribution on illuminating the DOE with an LG l=3 beam (i.e. after insertion of H1 into the optical path. Each annulus has the potential to trap a low index particle of suitable diameter. (c) A binary level version of the pattern used to produce the 4×4 spot intensity distribution of (a) and (b). The black regions shift the phase by π radians.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Logarithm of the critical velocity required to displace both high and low index particles from the optical trap versus the laser power. The effect of location is also apparent: in both instances, there is a marked increase in critical velocity when the particles are trapped away from a solid surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Graph of critical velocity required to laterally displace the CA particle from the optical trap, versus the laser power (and equivalent pumping current). There is no enhancement in trapping efficiency beyond laser powers of around 30mW as the effects of scattering push the particles further below the trap plane.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Photomicrographs demonstrating optical manipulation of 8 micro-bubbles simultaneously out of the plane of the top of the sample. In the left-most image, the trap array is established within a population of the contrast agent micro-bubbles, trapping 8 particles in the process. In the subsequent images, the array plane is physically moved in the z-direction so that trapped particles are selectively and simultaneously removed away from the rest of the population.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Average values of Q-lateral and Q-axial for CA micro-bubbles optically trapped in a Laguerre-Gaussian l=3 beam, as calculated using equations (4) and (5).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r max = ω l 2
F trap = Q n o P c
F drag = 3 π η v d
Q lateral = c n o 3 π η v c d P
F min = π 6 ( ρ p ρ m ) d 3 g + 2 k T d

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